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Breasts: The Owner’s Manual: Clinical References

The official and complete list of endnotes containing all the scientific studies referenced in the bestselling book Breasts: The Owner’s Manual by Dr. Kristi Funk.

Introduction

     1.  Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer, “Familial Breast Cancer: Collaborative Reanalysis of Individual Data from 52 Epidemiological Studies Including 58,209 Women with Breast Cancer and 101,986 Women Without the Disease,”Lancet358, no. 9291 (2001): 1389–99.

     2.  J. A. Dumalaon-Canaria et al., “What Causes Breast Cancer? A Systematic Review of Causal Attributions Among Breast Cancer Survivors and How These Compare to Expert-Endorsed Risk Factors,” Cancer Causes & Control25, no. 7 (2014): 771–85.

     3.  L. M. Sánchez-Zamorano et al., “Healthy Lifestyle on the Risk of Breast Cancer,” Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention Biomarkers20, no. 5 (2011): 912–22.

     4.  D. Evans et al., “The Angelina Jolie Effect: How High Celebrity Profile Can Have a Major Impact on Provision of Cancer-Related Services,” Breast Cancer Research16, no. 5 (2014): 442; D. Evans et al., “Longer-Term Effects of the Angelina Jolie Effect: Increased Risk-Reducing Mastectomy Rates in BRCA Carriers and Other High-Risk Women,” Breast Cancer Research17, no. 1 (2015): 143; R. H. Juthe, A. Zaharchuk, and C. Wang, “Celebrity Disclosures and Information Seeking: The Case of Angelina Jolie,” Genetics in Medicine17, no. 7 (2014): 545–53; P. B. Lebo et al., “The Angelina Effect Revisited: Exploring a Media-Related Impact on Public Awareness,” Cancer121, no. 22 (2015): 3959–64; C. M. Malcolm, M. U. Javed, and D. Nguyen, “Has the Angelina Jolie Effect Led to an Increase in Risk-Reducing Mastectomy and Breast Reconstruction in Wales: A Retrospective, Single-Centre Cohort Study,” Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery69, no. 2 (2016): 288–89; C. Staudigl et al., “Changes of Socio-demographic Data of Clients Seeking Genetic Counseling for Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer Due to the ‘Angelina Jolie Effect,’” BMC Cancer16, no. 1 (2016): 436; J. Lee et al., “Influence of the Angelina Jolie Announcement and Insurance Reimbursement on Practice Patterns for Hereditary Breast Cancer,” Journal of Breast Cancer20, no. 2 (2017): 203–7.

     5.  P. Anand et al., “Cancer Is a Preventable Disease That Requires Major Lifestyle Changes,” Pharmaceutical Research25, no. 9 (2008): 2097–116; L. M. Sánchez-Zamorano et al., “Healthy Lifestyle on the Risk of Breast Cancer,” Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention Biomarkers 20, no. 5 (2011): 912–22.

Chapter 1: Breast Care ABCs

     1.  C. Adem et al., “Primary Breast Sarcoma: Clinicopathologic Series from the Mayo Clinic and Review of the Literature,” British Journal of Cancer91, no. 2 (2004): 237–41.

     2.  R. P. Rapini, J. L. Bolognia, and J. L. Jorizzo, Dermatology: 2-Volume Set(St. Louis: Mosby, 2007).

Chapter 2: Debunking Breast Cancer Myths

     1.  A. S. Hamilton and T. M. Mack, “Puberty and Genetic Susceptibility to Breast Cancer in a Case-Control Study in Twins,” New England Journal of Medicine348, no. 23 (2003): 2313–22.

     2.  American Cancer Society, Breast Cancer Facts & Figures 2017–2018 (2017), accessed December 3, 2017, https://www.cancer.org/content/dam/cancer-org/research​/cancer-facts-and-statistics/breast-cancer-facts-and-figures/breast-cancer-facts-and​-figures-2017-2018.pdf.

     3.  American Cancer Society, Breast Cancer Facts & Figures 2017–2018 (2017), accessed December 7, 2017, https://www.cancer.org/content/dam/cancer-org/research​/cancer​-facts-and-statistics/breast-cancer-facts-and-figures/breast-cancer-facts-and​-figures-2017-2018.pdf.

     4.  American Cancer Society, Breast Cancer Facts & Figures 2017–2018 (2017), accessed December 3, 2017, https://www.cancer.org/content/dam/cancer-org/research​/cancer-facts-and-statistics/breast-cancer-facts-and-figures/breast-cancer-facts-and​-figures-2017-2018.pdf.

     5.  American Cancer Society, Breast Cancer Facts & Figures 2017–2018 (2017), accessed December 6, 2017, https://www.cancer.org/content/dam/cancer-org/research​/cancer-facts-and-statistics/breast-cancer-facts-and-figures/breast-cancer-facts-and​-figures-2017-2018.pdf.

     6.  D. Ornish et al., “Changes in Prostate Gene Expression in Men Undergoing an Intensive Nutrition and Lifestyle Intervention,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences105, no. 24 (2008): 8369–74.

     7.  K. B. Michels et al., “Coffee, Tea, and Caffeine Consumption and Breast Cancer Incidence in a Cohort of Swedish Women,” Annals of Epidemiology 12, no. 1 (January 2002): 21–26; L. J. Vatten, K. Solvoll, and E. B. Løken, “Coffee Consumption and the Risk of Breast Cancer: A Prospective Study of 14,593 Norwegian Women,” British Journal of Cancer62 (1990): 267–70.

     8.  J. A. Baker et al., “Consumption of Coffee, but Not Black Tea, Is Associated with Decreased Risk of Premenopausal Breast Cancer,” Journal of Nutrition 136, no. 1 (January 2006): 166–71; J. Li et al., “Coffee Consumption Modifies Risk of Estrogen-Receptor Negative Breast Cancer,” Breast Cancer Research13, no. 3 (2011): R49.

     9.  P. W. Parodi, “Dairy Product Consumption and the Risk of Breast Cancer,” Journal of the American College of Nutrition24, no. 6 (December 2005): 556S–68S; W. Al Sarakbi, M. Salhab, and K. Mokbel, “Dairy Products and Breast Cancer Risk: A Review of the Literature,” International Journal of Fertility and Women’s Medicine50, no. 6 (November–December 2005): 244–49; P. G. Moorman and P. D. Terry, “Consumption of Dairy Products and the Risk of Breast Cancer: A Review of the Literature,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition80, no. 1 (2004): 5–14; M. H. Shin et al., “Intake of Dairy Products, Calcium, and Vitamin D and Risk of Breast Cancer,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute94, no. 17 (September 2002): 1301–11.

   10.  S. A. Missmer et al., “Meat and Dairy Food Consumption and Breast Cancer: A Pooled Analysis of Cohort Studies,” International Journal of Epidemiology31, no. 1 (February 2002): 78–85; M. D. Holmes et al., “Meat, Fish and Egg Intake and Risk of Breast Cancer,” International Journal of Cancer104, no. 2 (March 2003): 221–27; D. D. Alexander et al., “A Review and Meta-analysis of Red and Processed Meat Consumption and Breast Cancer,” Nutrition Research Reviews23, no. 2 (2010): 349–65.

   11.  V. Estrella et al., “Acidity Generated by the Tumor Microenvironment Drives Local Invasion,” Cancer Research73, no. 5 (2013): 1524–35; J. B. McGillen et al., “A General Reaction–Diffusion Model of Acidity in Cancer Invasion,” Journal of Mathematical Biology68, no. 5 (2014): 1199–224; K. O. Alfarouk, A. K. Muddathir, and M. E. A. Shayoub, “Tumor Acidity as Evolutionary Spite,” Cancers3, no. 1 (2011): 408–14; M. F. McCarty and J. Whitaker, “Manipulating Tumor Acidification as a Cancer Treatment Strategy,” Alternative Medicine Review15, no. 3 (2010): 264–72.

   12.  C. R. Cassileth, Principles and Practice of Gastrointestinal Oncology(Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2008): 137.

   13.  S. R. Harris et al., “Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Care and Treatment of Breast Cancer: 11. Lymphedema,” Canadian Medical Association Journal164, no. 2 (2001): 191–99.

   14.  L. Chen, K. E. Malone, and C. I. Li, “Bra Wearing Not Associated with Breast Cancer Risk: A Population-Based Case-Control Study,” Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention23, no. 10 (2014): 2181–85.

   15.  D. K. Mirick, S. Davis, and D. B. Thomas, “Antiperspirant Use and the Risk of Breast Cancer,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute 94 (2002): 1578–80; P. D. Gikas, L. Mansfield, and K. Mokbel, “Do Underarm Cosmetics Cause Breast Cancer?” International Journal of Fertility and Women’s Medicine 49 (2004): 212–14.

   16.  P. D. Darbre, “Aluminum, Antiperspirants and Breast Cancer,” Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry99, no. 9 (2005): 1912–19.

   17.  P. D. Darbre, F. Mannello, and C. Exley, “Aluminium and Breast Cancer: Sources of Exposure, Tissue Measurements and Mechanisms of Toxicological Actions on Breast Biology,” Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry128 (2013): 257–61.

   18.  C. C. Willhite et al., “Systematic Review of Potential Health Risks Posed by Pharmaceutical, Occupational and Consumer Exposures to Metallic and Nanoscale Aluminum, Aluminum Oxides, Aluminum Hydroxide and Its Soluble Salts,” Critical Reviews in Toxicology44, no. 4 (2014): 1–80.

   19.  P. D. Darbre et al., “Concentrations of Parabens in Human Breast Tumours,” Journal of Applied Toxicology24 (2004): 5–13.

   20.  L. Barr et al., “Measurement of Paraben Concentrations in Human Breast Tissue at Serial Locations Across the Breast from Axilla to Sternum,” Journal of Applied Toxicology32 (2012): 219–32.

   21.  D. K. Mirick, S. Davis, and D. B. Thomas, “Antiperspirant Use and the Risk of Breast Cancer,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute94 (2002): 1578–80.

   22.  S. Fakri, A. Al-Azzawi, and N. Al-Tawil, “Antiperspirant Use as a Risk Factor for Breast Cancer in Iraq,” Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal12, nos. 3–4 (2006): 478–82.

   23.  K. G. McGrath, “An Earlier Age of Breast Cancer Diagnosis Related to More Frequent Use of Antiperspirants/Deodorants and Underarm Shaving,” European Journal of Cancer Prevention12 (2003): 479–85.

   24.  “Breast Cancer Statistics,” World Cancer Research Fund International, accessed June 10, 2017, http://www.wcrf.org/int/cancer-facts-figures/data-specific-cancers​/breast-cancer-statistics.

   25.  M. Donovan et al., “Personal Care Products That Contain Estrogens or XenoestrogensMay Increase Breast Cancer Risk,” Medical Hypotheses68 (2007): 756–66.

   26.  L. Rosenberg et al., “Hair Relaxers Not Associated with Breast Cancer Risk: Evidence from the Black Women’s Health Study,” Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention Biomarkers16, no. 5 (2007): 1035–37.

   27.  M. E. Herman-Giddens et al., “Secondary Sexual Characteristics and Menses in Young Girls Seen in Office Practice: A Study from the Pediatric Research in Office Settings Network,” Pediatrics99, no. 4 (1997): 505–12.

   28.  M. Donovan et al., “Personal Care Products That Contain Estrogens or Xenoestrogens May Increase Breast Cancer Risk,” Medical Hypotheses68, no. 4 (2007): 756–66.

   29.  V. R. Jacobs et al., “Mastitis Nonpuerperalis After Nipple Piercing: Time to Act,”International Journal of Fertility and Women’s Medicine48, no. 5 (2002): 226–31; J. Martin, “Is Nipple Piercing Compatible with Breastfeeding?” Journal of Human Lactation20, no. 3 (2004): 319–21.

   30.  N. Kluger and V. Koljonen, “Tattoos, Inks, and Cancer,” Lancet Oncology13, no. 4 (2012): e161–e168.

   31.  K. Lehner et al., “Black Tattoo Inks Are a Source of Problematic Substances such as Dibutyl Phthalate,” Contact Dermatitis65 (2011): 231–38.

   32.  M. Shermer, “Can You Hear Me Now? The Truth About Cell Phones and Cancer,” Scientific American303, no. 4 (2010): 98.

   33.  B. Leikind, “Do Cell Phones Cause Cancer?” Skeptic15, no. 4 (2010): 30.

   34.  E. Cardis et al., “Brain Tumour Risk in Relation to Mobile Telephone Use: Results of the INTERPHONE International Case-Control Study,” International Journal of Epidemiology39 (2010): 675; C. Johansen et al., “Cellular Telephones and Cancer: A Nationwide Cohort Study in Denmark,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute93 (2001): 203; V. G. Khurana et al., “Cell Phones and Brain Tumors: A Review Including the Long-Term Epidemiologic Data,” Surgical Neurology70 (2009): 205; V. S. Benson et al., “Mobile Phone Use and Risk of Brain Neoplasms and Other Cancers: Prospective Study,” International Journal of Epidemiology42, no. 3 (2013): 792–802.

   35.  V. G. Khurana et al., “Cell Phones and Brain Tumors: A Review Including the Long-Term Epidemiologic Data,” Surgical Neurology70 (2009): 205.

   36.  E. R. Schoenfeld et al., “Electromagnetic Fields and Breast Cancer on Long Island: A Case-Control Study,” American Journal of Epidemiology158, no. 1 (2003): 47–58.

   37.  P. K. Verkasalo et al., “Magnetic Fields of High Voltage Power Lines and Risk of Cancer in Finnish Adults: Nationwide Cohort Study,” British Medical Journal 313 (1996): 1047–51; S. Davis, D. K. Mirick, and R. G. Stevens, “Residential Magnetic Fields and the Risk of Breast Cancer,” American Journal of Epidemiology155, no. 5 (2002): 446–54.

   38.  R. K. Adair, “Constraints on Biological Effects of Weak Extremely-Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Fields,” Physics ReviewA43 (1991): 1039–48.

   39.  Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer, “Breast Cancer and Hormonal Contraceptives: Collaborative Reanalysis of Individual Data on 53,297 Women with Breast Cancer and 100,239 Women Without Breast Cancer from 54 Epidemiological Studies,”Lancet347, no. 9017 (1996): 1713–27.

   40.  Jennifer M. Gierisch et al., “Oral Contraceptive Use and Risk of Breast, Cervical, Colorectal, and Endometrial Cancers: A Systematic Review,” Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention Biomarkers22, no. 11 (2013): 1931–43.

   41.  S. A. Narod et al., “Oral Contraceptives and the Risk of Hereditary Ovarian Cancer: Hereditary Ovarian Cancer Clinical Study Group,” New England Journal of Medicine339, no. 7 (1998): 424–28.

   42.  G. Nikas et al., “Endometrial Pinopodes Indicate a Shift in the Window of Receptivity in IVF Cycles,” Human Reproduction14 (1999): 787–92.

   43.  C. Fei et al., “Fertility Drugs and Young-Onset Breast Cancer: Results from the Two Sister Study,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute104 (2012): 1021–27; L. G. Liat et al., “Are Infertility Treatments a Potential Risk Factor for Cancer Development? Perspective of 30 Years of Follow-Up,” Gynecological Endocrinology28, no. 10 (2012): 809–14; L. M. Stewart et al., “In Vitro Fertilization and Breast Cancer: Is There Cause for Concern?” Fertility and Sterility98, no. 2 (2012): 334–40; A. N. Yli-Kuha et al., “Cancer Morbidity in a Cohort of 9,175 Finnish Women Treated for Infertility,” Human Reproduction27, no. 4 (2012): 1149–55; L. A. Brinton et al., “In Vitro Fertilization and Risk of Breast and Gynecologic Cancers: A Retrospective Cohort Study Within the Israeli Maccabi Healthcare Services,” Fertility and Sterility99, no. 5 (2013): 1189–96.

   44.  T. N. Sergentanis et al., “IVF and Breast Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis,” Human Reproduction Update20, no. 1 (2013): 106–23.

   45.  A. Q. van den Belt-Dusebout et al., “Ovarian Stimulation for In Vitro Fertilization and Long-Term Risk of Breast Cancer,” Journal of the American Medical Association316, no. 3 (2016): 300–312.

   46.  L. M. Stewart, “In Vitro Fertilization and Breast Cancer: Is There Cause for Concern?” Fertility and Sterility98, no. 2 (2012): 334–40.

   47.  V. Beral et al., “Breast Cancer and Abortion: Collaborative Reanalysis of Data from 53 Epidemiological Studies, including 83,000 Women with Breast Cancer from 16 Countries,” Lancet363, no. 9414 (2004): 1007–16; K. B. Michels et al., “Induced and Spontaneous Abortion and Incidence of Breast Cancer Among Young Women: A Prospective Cohort Study,” Archives of Internal Medicine167, no. 8 (2007): 814–20; G. K. Reeves et al., “Breast Cancer Risk in Relation to Abortion: Results from the EPIC Study,”International Journal of Cancer119, no. 7 (2006): 1741–45; J. Couzin, “Cancer Risk: Review Rules Out Abortion–Cancer Link,” Science299, no. 5612 (2003): 1498.

   48.  National Cancer Institute, “Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk: 2003 Workshop,” reviewed January 2010, https://www.cancer.gov/types/breast/abortion-miscarriage-risk.

   49.  V. Beral et al., “Breast Cancer and Abortion: Collaborative Reanalysis of Data from 53 Epidemiological Studies, Including 83,000 Women with Breast Cancer from 16 Countries,” Lancet363, no. 9414 (2004): 1007–16.

   50.  D. M. Deapen et al., “The Relationship Between Breast Cancer and Augmentation Mammaplasty: An Epidemiologic Study,” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery77, no. 3 (1986): 361–68.

   51.  D. M. Deapen et al., “Cancer Risk Among Los Angeles Women with Cosmetic Breast Implants,” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery119, no. 7 (2007): 1987–92.

   52.  E. C. Noels et al., “Breast Implants and the Risk of Breast Cancer: A Meta-analysis of Cohort Studies,” Aesthetic Surgery Journal35, no. 1 (2015): 55–62.

   53.  K. Kjøller et al., “Characteristics of Women with Cosmetic Breast Implants Compared with Women with Other Types of Cosmetic Surgery and Population-Based Controls in Denmark,” Annals of Plastic Surgery50, no. 1 (2003): 6–12.

   54.  A. Stivala et al., “Breast Cancer Risk in Women Treated with Augmentation Mammoplasty,” Oncology Reports28, no. 1 (2012): 3–7.

   55.  M. McCarthy, “Rare Lymphoma Is Linked to Breast Implants, US Officials Conclude,” British Medical Journal356 (2017).

   56.  K. Lund, M. Ewertz, and G. Schou, “Breast Cancer Incidence Subsequent to Surgical Reduction of the Female Breast,” Scandinavian Journal of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery and Hand Surgery 21, no. 2 (1987): 209–12; M. Baasch et al., “Breast Cancer Incidence Subsequent to Surgical Reduction of the Female Breast,” British Journal of Cancer 73, no. 9 (1996): 961; J. D. Boice et al., “Cancer Following Breast Reduction Surgery in Denmark,” Cancer Causes and Control8, no. 2 (1997): 253–58; J. D. Boice et al., “Breast Cancer Following Breast Reduction Surgery in Sweden,” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery106, no. 5 (2000): 755–62; M. H. Brown et al., “A Cohort Study of Breast Cancer Risk in Breast Reduction Patients,” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery 103, no. 8 (1999): 1674–81; J. P. Fryzek et al., “A Nationwide Study of Breast Cancer Incidence Following Breast Reduction Surgery in a Large Cohort of Swedish Women,” Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 97, no. 2 (2006): 131–34; L. A. Brinton et al., “Breast Cancer Risk in Relation to Amount of Tissue Removed During Breast Reduction Operations in Sweden,” Cancer91, no. 3 (2001): 478–83; L. A. Brinton et al., “Breast Enlargement and Reduction: Results from a Breast Cancer Case-Control Study,” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery 97, no. 2 (1996): 269–75.

   57.  R. E. Tarone et al., “Breast Reduction Surgery and Breast Cancer Risk: Does Reduction Mammaplasty Have a Role in Primary Prevention Strategies for Women at High Risk of Breast Cancer?” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery 113, no. 9 (2004): 2104–10.

   58.  A. Brodiet, B. Long, and Q. Lu, “Aromatase Expression in the Human Breast,” Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 49, no. 1 (1998): S85–91; K. Lund, M. Ewertz, and G. Schou, “Breast Cancer Incidence Subsequent to Surgical Reduction of the Female Breast,” Scandinavian Journal of Plastic Surgery and Hand Surgery 21, no. 2 (1987): 209–12.

   59.  D. Trichopoulos and L. Lipworth, “Is Cancer Causation Simpler Than We Thought, but More Intractable?” Epidemiology6, no. 4 (1995): 347–49; W. Y. J. Imagawa, R. Guzman, and S. Nandi, Control of Mammary Gland Growth and Differentiation, 2nd ed. (New York: Raven Press, 1994); R. T. Senie et al., “Is Breast Size a Predictor of Breast Cancer Risk or the Laterality of the Tumor?” Cancer Causes and Control4, no. 3 (1993): 203–8.

   60.  A. S. Kusano et al., “A Prospective Study of Breast Size and Premenopausal Breast Cancer Incidence,” International Journal of Cancer118, no. 8 (2006): 2031–34.

   61.  R. T. Senie et al., “Is Breast Size a Predictor of Breast Cancer Risk or the Laterality of the Tumor?” Cancer Causes and Control4, no. 3 (1993): 203–8; R. N. Katariya, A. P. Forrest, and I. H. Gravelle, “Breast Volumes in Cancer of the Breast,” British Journal of Cancer29, no. 3 (1974): 270–73; E. Thurfjell et al., “Breast Size and Mammographic Pattern in Relation to Breast Cancer Risk,” European Journal of Cancer Prevention 5, no. l (1996): 37–41; E. L. Wynder, I. J. Bross, and T. Hirayama, “A Study of the Epidemiology of Cancer of the Breast,” Cancer13 (1960): 559–601; H. O. Adami and A. Rimsten, “Adipose Tissue and Aetiology of Breast Cancer,” Lancet2, no. 8091 (1978): 677–78; T. Hirohata, A. M. Nomura, and L. N. Kolonel, “Breast Size and Cancer,” British Medical Journal2, no. 6087 (1977): 641; I. Soini, “Risk Factors of Breast Cancer in Finland,” International Journal of Epidemiology6, no. 4 (1977): 365–73; A. Tavani et al., “Breast Size and Breast Cancer Risk,” European Journal of Cancer Prevention5, no. 5 (1996): 337–42.

   62.  C. T. Pham and S. J. McPhee, “Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices of Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening Among Vietnamese Women,” Journal of Cancer Education7, no. 4 (1992): 305–10.

   63.  R. J. Donovan et al., “Changes in Beliefs About Cancer in Western Australia, 1964–2001,” Medical Journal of Australia181 (2004): 23–25.

Chapter 3: Eat This

     1.  T. P. Butler and P. M. Gullino, “Quantitation of Cell Shedding into Efferent Blood of Mammary Adenocarcinoma,” Cancer Research35, no. 3 (1975): 512–16.

     2.  T. C. Campbell and T. M. Campbell II, The China Study: The Most Comprehensive Study of Nutrition Ever Conducted and the Startling Implications for Diet, Weight Loss, and Long-Term Health(Dallas: BenBella, 2004).

     3.  M. O. Harris et al., “Grasses and Gall Midges: Plant Defense and Insect Adaptation,” Annual Review of Entomology48, no. 1 (2003): 549–77.

     4.  A. A. Oliveira et al., “Antimicrobial Activity of Amazonian Medicinal Plants,” SpringerPlus2, no. 1 (2013): 371.

     5.  J. Sun et al., “Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Activities of Fruits,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 50 (2002): 7449–54; Y. F. Chu et al., “Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Activities of Vegetables,”Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry50 (2002): 6910–16; L. O. Dragsted, M. Strube, and J. C. Larsen, “Cancer-Protective Factors in Fruits and Vegetables: Biochemical and Biological Background,” Pharmacology and Toxicology72 (1993): 116–35; A. R. Waladkhani and M. R. Clemens, “Effect of Dietary Phytochemicals on Cancer Development,” International Journal of Molecular Medicine1 (1998): 747–53.

     6.  M. Valko et al., “Free Radicals, Metals, and Antioxidants in Oxidative Stress​-Induced Cancer,” Chemico-Biological Interactions160, no. 1 (2006): 1–40.

     7.  B. Burton-Freeman et al., “Strawberry Modulates LDL Oxidation and Postprandial Lipemia in Response to High-Fat Meal in Overweight Hyperlipidemic Men and Women,” Journal of the American College of Nutrition29, no. 1 (2010): 46–54.

     8.  M. A. Martinez-Gonzalez and N. Martin-Calvo, “Mediterranean Diet and Life Expectancy: Beyond Olive Oil, Fruits, and Vegetables,” Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care19, no. 6 (2016): 401–7.

     9.  A. Trichopoulou et al., “Cancer and Mediterranean Dietary Traditions,” Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention9, no. 9 (2000): 869–73; W. C. Willett et al., “Mediterranean Diet Pyramid: A Cultural Model for Healthy Eating,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition61, no. 6 (1995): 1402S–6S; F. Levi, F Lucchini, and C. La Vecchia, “Worldwide Patterns of Cancer Mortality,” European Journal of Cancer Prevention3 (1994): 109–43.

   10.  A. Castelló et al., “Spanish Mediterranean Diet and Other Dietary Patterns and Breast Cancer Risk: Case-Control EpiGEICAM Study,” British Journal of Cancer111, no. 7 (2014): 1454–62.

   11.  P. A. van den Brandt and M. Schulpen, “Mediterranean Diet Adherence and Risk of Postmenopausal Breast Cancer: Results of a Cohort Study and Meta-analysis,” International Journal of Cancer140 (2017): 2220–31.

   12.  G. Buckland et al., “Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet and Risk of Breast Cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Cohort Study,” International Journal of Cancer132, no. 12 (2013): 2918–27.

   13.  K. Pintha, S. Yodkeeree, and P. Limtrakul, “Proanthocyanidin in Red Rice Inhibits MDA-MB-231 Breast Cancer Cell Invasion via the Expression Control of Invasive Proteins,” Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin38, no. 4 (2015): 571–81; E. A. Hudson et al., “Characterization of Potentially Chemopreventive Phenols in Extracts of Brown Rice that Inhibit the Growth of Human Breast and Colon Cancer Cells,” Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention Biomarkers9, no. 11 (2000): 1163–70; C. Hui et al., “Anticancer Activities of an Anthocyanin-Rich Extract from Black Rice Against Breast Cancer Cells In Vitro and In Vivo,” Nutrition and Cancer62, no. 8 (2010): 1128–36.

   14.  American Cancer Society, Breast Cancer Facts & Figures 2017–2018 (2017), accessed December 2, 2017, https://www.cancer.org/content/dam/cancer-org/research​/cancer-facts-and-statistics/breast-cancer-facts-and-figures/breast-cancer-facts-and​-figures-2017–2018.pdf.

   15.  American Institute for Cancer Research, Facts on Preventing Cancer: The Cancer Fighters in Your Food brochure, accessed December 26, 2017, http://www.aicr.org/reduce-your-cancer-risk/diet/elements_phytochemicals.html.

   16.  “5 Colors of Phytonutrients,” Naturally Healthy Concepts, accessed December 26, 2017, https://www.naturalhealthyconcepts.com/resources/infographics​/phytonutrients; Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, “Shifts Needed to Align with Healthy Eating Patterns,” in Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2015​–2020, 8th ed., accessed December 3, 2017, https://health.gov/dietaryguidelines/2015​/guidelines/chapter-2/a-closer-look-at-current-intakes-and-recommended-shifts/.

   17.  C. B. Ambrosone et al., “Breast Cancer Risk in Premenopausal Women Is Inversely Associated with Consumption of Broccoli, a Source of Isothiocyanates, but Is Not Modified by GST Genotype,” Journal of Nutrition134, no. 5 (2004): 1134–38.

   18.  Y. Li et al., “Sulforaphane, a Dietary Component of Broccoli / Broccoli Sprouts, Inhibits Breast Cancer Stem Cells,” Clinical Cancer Research16, no. 9 (2010): 2580–90.

   19.  J. J. Michnovicz, H. Adlercreutz, and H. L. Bradlow, “Changes in Levels of Urinary Estrogen Metabolites after Oral Indole-3-Carbinol Treatment in Humans,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute89, no. 10 (1997): 718–23.

   20.  D. A. Boggs et al., “Fruit and Vegetable Intake in Relation to Risk of Breast Cancer in the Black Women’s Health Study,” American Journal of Epidemiology172, no. 11 (2010): 1268–79.

   21.  M. Gerber, “Fibre and Breast Cancer,” European Journal of Cancer Prevention7, no. 2 (May 1998): S63–67; L. A. Cohen, “Dietary Fiber and Breast Cancer,” Anticancer Research 19, no. 5A (September–October 1999): 3685–88.

   22.  S. Gandini et al., “Meta-analysis of Studies on Breast Cancer Risk and Diet: The Role of Fruit and Vegetable Consumption and the Intake of Associated Micronutrients,” European Journal of Cancer36, no. 5 (March 2000): 636–46; T. T. Fung et al., “Diet Quality Is Associated with the Risk of Estrogen Receptor-Negative Breast Cancer in Postmenopausal Women,” Journal of Nutrition136, no. 2 (February 2006): 466–72.

   23.  I. Mattisson et al., “Intakes of Plant Foods, Fibre and Fat and Risk of Breast Cancer: A Prospective Study in the Malmo Diet and Cancer Cohort,” British Journal of Cancer90, no. 1 (January 2004): 122–27.

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Chapter 4: Don’t Eat That

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Chapter 5: Beyond Food: What You Should Do

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Chapter 6: Uncontrollable Risk Factors: Do You Have Them?

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     5.  M. Pierce and R. Hardy, “Commentary: The Decreasing Age of Puberty—As Much a Psychosocial as Biological Problem?” International Journal of Epidemiology41, no. 1 (2012): 300–302.

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     7.  M. M. Grumbach, “Puberty: Ontogeny, Neuroendocrinology, Physiology, and Dis­order,” Williams Textbook of Endocrinology(Philadelphia: Saunders, 1998), 1509–625.

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     9.  M. B. Pierce and D. A. Leon, “Age at Menarche and Adult BMI in the Aberdeen Children of the 1950s Cohort Study,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 82 (2005): 733–98.

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   11.  G. C. Patton and R. Viner, “Pubertal Transitions in Health,” Lancet369, no. 9567 (March 2007): 1130–39.

   12.  M. B. Pierce, D. Kuh, and R. Hardy, “Role of Lifetime Body Mass Index in the Association Between Age at Puberty and Adult Lipids: Findings from Men and Women in a British Birth Cohort,” Annals of Epidemiology20, no. 9 (September 2010): 676–82.

   13.  M. R. Palmert et al., “Is Obesity an Outcome of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Agonist Administration? Analysis of Growth and Body Composition in 110 Patients with Central Precocious Puberty,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism84, no. 12 (1999): 4480–88; F. Massart et al., “How Do Environmental Estrogen Disruptors Induce Precocious Puberty?” Minerva Pediatrica58, no. 3 (2006): 247–54.

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   15.  J. R. Wisbey et al., “Natural History of Breast Pain,” Lancet 322, no. 8351 (1983): 672–74.

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   17.  G. Copeland et al., Cancer in North America: 2008–2012. Volume One: Combined Cancer Incidence for the United States, Canada and North America(Springfield, IL: North American Association of Central Cancer Registries, 2015).

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   19.  L. X. Clegg et al., “Cancer Survival Among US Whites and Minorities: A SEER (Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results) Program Population-Based Study,” Archives of Internal Medicine162, no. 17 (September 2002): 1985–93.

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   21.  D. Huo et al., “Comparison of Breast Cancer Molecular Features and Survival by African and European Ancestry in The Cancer Genome Atlas,” JAMA Oncology, accessed December 10, 2017, doi:10.1001/jamaoncol.2017.0595.

   22.  R. T. Chlebowski et al., “Ethnicity and Breast Cancer: Factors Influencing Differences in Incidence and Outcome,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute97, no. 6 (March 2005): 439–48; A. Naeim et al., “Do Age and Ethnicity Predict Breast Cancer Treatment Received? A Cross-Sectional Urban Population–Based Study, Breast Cancer Treatment: Age and Ethnicity,” Critical Reviews in Oncology-Hematology59, no. 3 (September 2006): 234–42; G. Maskarinec et al., “A Longitudinal Investigation of Mammographic Density: The Multiethnic Cohort,” Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention15, no. 4 (April 2006): 732–39; C. P. Kaplan et al., “Breast Cancer Risk Reduction Options: Awareness, Discussion, and Use Among Women from Four Ethnic Groups,” Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention15, no. 1 (January 2006): 162–66; L. Tillman et al., “Breast Cancer in Native American Women Treated at an Urban-Based Indian Health Referral Center 1982–2003,” American Journal of Surgery190, no. 6 (December 2005): 895–902; R. Nanda et al., “Genetic Testing in an Ethnically Diverse Cohort of High-Risk Women: A Comparative Analysis of BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutations in American Families of European and African Ancestry,” Journal of the American Medical Association 294, no. 15 (2005): 1925–33; Hunt et al., “Increasing Black:White Disparities in Breast Cancer Mortality in the 50 Largest Cities in the US,” Cancer Epidemiology 38, no. 2 (April 2014): 118–23; S. Percac-Lima et al., “Decreasing Disparities in Breast Cancer Screening in Refugee Women Using Culturally Tailored Patient Navigation,” Journal of General Internal Medicine28 (2013): 1463–68.

   23.  J. S. Lawson, “The Link Between Socioeconomic Status and Breast Cancer—a Possible Explanation,” Scandinavian Journal of Public Health27, no. 3 (September 1999): 203–5.

   24.  S. A. Robert et al., “Socioeconomic Risk Factors for Breast Cancer: Distinguishing Individual- and Community-Level Effects,” Epidemiology15, no. 4 (July 2004): 442–50.

   25.  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), “Breast Cancer Screening and Socioeconomic Status—35 Metropolitan Areas, 2000 and 2002,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report54, no. 39 (October 2005): 981–85.

   26.  A. Downing et al., “Socioeconomic Background in Relation to Stage at Diagnosis, Treatment and Survival in Women with Breast Cancer,” British Journal of Cancer96, no. 5 (March 2007): 836–40; L. E. Rutqvist and A. Bern, “Socioeconomic Gradients in Clinical Stage at Presentation and Survival Among Breast Cancer Patients in the Stockholm Area 1977–1997,” International Journal of Cancer119, no. 6 (September 2006): 1433–39.

   27.  R. Shi, “Effects of Payer Status on Breast Cancer Survival: A Retrospective Study,” BMC Cancer15 (2015): 211.

   28.  L. A. Newman et al., “Impact of Breast Carcinoma on African-American Women: The Detroit Experience,” Cancer91, no. 9 (May 2001): 1834–43.

   29.  H. J. Baer et al., “Adult Height, Age at Attained Height, and Incidence of Breast Cancer in Premenopausal Women,” International Journal of Cancer119, no. 9 (November 2006): 2231–35.

   30.  J. M. Petrelli et al., “Body Mass Index, Height, and Postmenopausal Breast Cancer Mortality in a Prospective Cohort of US Women,” Cancer Causes and Control13, no. 4 (May 2002): 325–32.

   31.  R. G. Ziegler, “Anthropometry and Breast Cancer,” Journal of Nutrition127, no. 5 (May 1997): 924S–928S.

   32.  Hormones, the Endogenous, and Breast Cancer Collaborative Group, “Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 (IGF1), IGF Binding Protein 3 (IGFBP3), and Breast Cancer Risk: Pooled Individual Data Analysis of 17 Prospective Studies,” Lancet Oncology11, no. 6 (2010): 530–42.

   33.  R. Pacifici, “Cytokines, Estrogen, and Postmenopausal Osteoporosis—the Second Decade,” Endocrinology139, no. 6 (June 1998): 2659–61.

   34.  Y. Zhang et al., “Bone Mass and the Risk of Breast Cancer Among Postmenopausal Women,” New England Journal of Medicine336, no. 9 (February 1997): 611–17; J. A. Cauley et al., “Bone Mineral Density and Risk of Breast Cancer in Older Women: The Study of Osteoporotic Fractures; Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group,” Journal of the American Medical Association276, no. 17 (November 1996): 1404–8.

   35.  I. Persson et al., “Reduced Risk of Breast and Endometrial Cancer Among Women with Hip Fractures,” Cancer Causes and Control5, no. 6 (November 1994): 523–28; H. Olsson and G. Hagglund, “Reduced Cancer Morbidity and Mortality in a Prospective Cohort of Women with Distal Forearm Fractures,” American Journal of Epidemiology136, no. 4 (August 1992): 422–27.

   36.  N. F. Boyd et al., “Mammographic Density: A Hormonally Responsive Risk Factor for Breast Cancer,” Journal of the British Menopause Society12, no. 4 (December 2006): 186–93; M. P. V. Shekhar et al., “Breast Stroma Plays a Dominant Regulatory Role in Breast Epithelial Growth and Differentiation: Implications for Tumor Development and Progression,” Cancer Research61, no. 4 (2001): 1320–26.

   37.  T. M. Kolb, J. Lichy, and J. H. Newhouse, “Comparison of the Performance of Screening Mammography, Physical Examination, and Breast US and Evaluation of Factors that Influence Them: An Analysis of 27,825 Patient Evaluations,” Radiology225, no. 1 (2002): 165–75.

   38.  N. F. Boyd et al., “Quantitative Classification of Mammographic Densities and Breast Cancer Risk: Results from the Canadian National Breast Screening Study,”Journal of the National Cancer Institute87, no. 9 (May 1995): 670–75; R. M. Tamimi et al., “Endogenous Hormone Levels, Mammographic Density, and Subsequent Risk of Breast Cancer in Postmenopausal Women,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute99, no. 15 (August 2007): 1178–87.

   39.  J. A. Knight et al., “Macronutrient Intake and Change in Mammographic Density at Menopause: Results from a Randomized Trial,” Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention8, no. 2 (February 1999): 123–28; G. A. Greendale et al., “Effects of Estrogen and Estrogen-Progestin on Mammographic Parenchymal Density: Postmenopausal Estrogen/Progestin Interventions (PEPI) Investigators,” Annals of Internal Medicine130, no. 4 (February 1999): 262–69.

   40.  G. Ursin et al., “Can Mammographic Densities Predict Effects of Tamoxifen on the Breast?” Journal of the National Cancer Institute88, no. 2 (January 1996): 128–29.

   41.  A. McTiernan et al., “Estrogen-Plus-Progestin Use and Mammographic Density in Postmenopausal Women: Women’s Health Initiative Randomized Trial,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute97, no. 18 (2005): 1366–76.

   42.  J. Cuzick et al., “Tamoxifen-Induced Reduction in Mammographic Density and Breast Cancer Risk Reduction: A Nested Case-Control Study,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute103, no. 9 (2011): 744–52.

   43.  K. A. Ely et al., “Core Biopsy of the Breast with Atypical Ductal Hyperplasia: A Probabilistic Approach to Reporting,” American Journal of Surgical Pathology25, no. 8 (August 2001): 1017–21.

   44.  “Consensus Guideline on Concordance Assessment of Image-Guided Breast Biopsies and Management of Borderline or High-Risk Lesions,” The American Society of Breast Surgeons, accessed September 9, 2017, https://www.breastsurgeons.org​/new​_layout/about/statements/PDF_Statements/Concordance_and_High%20RiskLesions​.pdf; M. Morrow, S. J. Schnitt, and L. Norton, “Reviews: Current Management of Lesions Associated with an Increased Risk of Breast Cancer,” National Review of Clinical Oncology12 (2015): 227–38.

   45.  M. Guray and A. A. Sahin, “Benign Breast Diseases: Classification, Diagnosis, and Management,” Oncologist11, no. 5 (2006): 435–49; R. A. Jensen et al., “Invasive Breast Cancer Risk in Women with Sclerosing Adenosis,” Cancer64, no. 10 (1989): 1977–83.

   46.  B. Fisher et al., “Tamoxifen for Prevention of Breast Cancer: Report of the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project P-1 Study,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute90, no. 18 (September 1998): 1371–88.

   47.  N. Houssami et al., “The Association of Surgical Margins and Local Recurrence in Women with Early-Stage Invasive Breast Cancer Treated with Breast-Conserving Therapy: A Meta-analysis,” Annals of Surgical Oncology 21, no. 3 (2014): 717–30.

   48.  R. E. Curtis et al., New Malignancies Among Cancer Survivors: SEER Cancer Registries, 1973–2000(Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute, 2006).

   49.  R. E. Curtis et al., “New Malignancies Following Breast Cancer,” in New Malignancies Among Cancer Survivors: SEER Cancer Registries, 1973–2000(Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute, 2006).

   50.  “Familial Breast Cancer: Collaborative Reanalysis of Individual Data from 52 Epidemiological Studies Including 58,209 Women with Breast Cancer and 101,986 Women Without the Disease,” Lancet358, no. 9291 (2001): 1389–99.

   51.  P. Pharoah et al., “Family History and the Risk of Breast Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis,” International Journal of Cancer71, no. 5 (1997): 800–9.

   52.  K. A. Metcalfe et al., “Breast Cancer Risks in Women with a Family History of Breast or Ovarian Cancer Who Have Tested Negative for a BRCA1 or BRCA2 Mutation,” British Journal of Cancer100, no. 2 (2009): 421.

   53.  B. N. Peshkin, M. L. Alabek, and C. Isaacs, “BRCA 1/2 Mutations and Triple Negative Breast Cancers,” Breast Disease32, no. 1–2 (2011): 25–33.

   54.  “Prevalence and Penetrance of BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutations in a Population-Based Series of Breast Cancer Cases: Anglian Breast Cancer Study Group,” British Journal of Cancer83, no. 10 (2000): 1301–8; V. A. Moyer, “Risk Assessment, Genetic Counseling, and Genetic Testing for BRCA-Related Cancer in Women: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement,” Annals of Internal Medicine160, no. 4 (February 2014): 271–81.

   55.  N. Petrucelli, M. B. Daly, and T. Pal, “BRCA1- and BRCA2-Associated Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer,” in M. P. Adam et al., eds., GeneReviews(Seattle: University of Washington, 1993–2018).

   56.  S. Chen and G. Parmigiani, “Meta-analysis of BRCA1 and BRCA2 Penetrance,” Journal of Clinical Oncology 25, no. 11 (April 2007): 1329–33.

   57.  B. N. Peshkin, M. L. Alabek, and C. Isaacs, “BRCA 1/2 Mutations and Triple Negative Breast Cancers,” Breast Disease32, nos. 1–2 (2011): 25–33.

   58.  K. Metcalfe et al., “Contralateral Breast Cancer in BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers,” Journal of Clinical Oncology22, no. 12 (June 2004): 2328–35.

   59.  S. Panchal et al., “Does Family History Predict the Age at Onset of New Breast Cancers in BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation‐Positive Families?” Clinical Genetics 77, no. 3 (2010): 273–79.

   60.  E. Mocci et al., “Risk of Pancreatic Cancer in Breast Cancer Families from the Breast Cancer Family Registry, Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention22, no. 5 (May 2013): 803–11.

   61.  D. Easton et al., “Cancer Risks in BRCA2 Mutation Carriers,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute 91, no. 15 (August 1999): 1310–16.

   62.  A. Liede, B. Y. Karlan, and S. A. Narod, “Cancer Risks for Male Carriers of Germline Mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2: A Review of the Literature,” Journal of Clinical Oncology22, no. 4 (February 2004): 735–42.

   63.  D. Easton et al., “Cancer Risks in BRCA2 Mutation Carriers,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute 91, no. 15 (August 1999): 1310–16.

   64.  L. Castéra et al., “Next-Generation Sequencing for the Diagnosis of Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer Using Genomic Capture Targeting Multiple Candidate Genes,” European Journal of Human Genetics22, no. 11 (2014): 1305.

   65.  K. D. Gonzalez et al., “Beyond Li Fraumeni Syndrome: Clinical Characteristics of Families with p53 Germline Mutations,” Journal of Clinical Oncology27, no. 8 (2009): 1250–56.

   66.  P. D. Pharoah, P. Guilford, and C. Caldas, “Incidence of Gastric Cancer and Breast Cancer in CDH1 (E-cadherin) Mutation Carriers from Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer Families,” Gastroenterology121, no. 6 (2001): 1348–53.

   67.  M. K. Schmidt et al., “Breast Cancer Survival and Tumor Characteristics in Premenopausal Women Carrying the CHEK2* 1100delC Germline Mutation,” Journal of Clinical Oncology25, no. 1 (2006): 64–69.

   68.  M. K. Schmidt et al., “Breast Cancer Survival and Tumor Characteristics in Premenopausal Women Carrying the CHEK2* 1100delC Germline Mutation,” Journal of Clinical Oncology25, no. 1 (2006): 64–69.

   69.  B. Zhang et al., “Genetic Variants Associated with Breast Cancer Risk: Comprehensive Research Synopsis, Meta-analysis, and Epidemiological Evidence,” Lancet Oncology 12, no. 5 (May 2011): 477–88.

   70.  D. F. Easton et al., “Gene-Panel Sequencing and the Prediction of Breast Cancer Risk,” New England Journal of Medicine 372, no. 23 (2015): 2243–57.

   71.  A. Broeks et al., “Identification of Women with an Increased Risk of Developing Radiation-Induced Breast Cancer: A Case Only Study,” Breast Cancer Research9, no. 2 (2007): R26.

   72.  A. Broeks et al., “Identification of Women with an Increased Risk of Developing Radiation-Induced Breast Cancer: A Case Only Study,” Breast Cancer Research9, no. 2 (2007): R26.

   73.  F. J. Couch et al., “Inherited Mutations in 17 Breast Cancer Susceptibility Genes Among a Large Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Cohort Unselected for Family History of Breast Cancer,” Journal of Clinical Oncology33, no. 4 (2015): 304–11.

   74.  National Comprehensive Cancer Network, “Genetic/Familial High-Risk Assessment: Breast and Ovarian,” NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology, accessed August 19, 2017, https://www.tri-kobe.org/nccn/guideline/gynecological​/english/genetic_familial.pdf.

   75.  C. K. Kuhl et al., “Mammography, Breast Ultrasound, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Surveillance of Women at High Familial Risk for Breast Cancer,” Journal of Clinical Oncology23, no. 33 (2005): 8469–76.

   76.  S. Iodice et al., “Oral Contraceptives and Breast or Ovarian Cancer Risk in BRCA 1/2 Carriers: A Meta-analysis,” European Journal of Cancer 46, no. 12 (August 2010): 2275–84.

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Chapter 7: Medications and Operations to Consider

     1.  J. Cuzick et al., “Preventive Therapy for Breast Cancer: A Consensus Statement,” Lancet Oncology12, no. 5 (2011): 496–503.

     2.  P. E. Goss et al., “Exemestane for Breast Cancer Prevention in Postmenopausal Women,” New England Journal of Medicine364, no. 25 (2011): 2381–91.

     3.  J. Cuzick et al., “Anastrozole for Prevention of Breast Cancer in High-Risk Postmenopausal Women (IBIS-II): An International, Double-Blind, Randomised Placebo-Controlled Trial,” Lancet383, no. 9922 (2014): 1041–48.

     4.  L. E. Rutqvist et al., “Contralateral Primary Tumors in Breast Cancer Patients in a Randomized Trial of Adjuvant Tamoxifen Therapy,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute83: 1299–306.

     5.  B. Fisher et al., “Tamoxifen for Prevention of Breast Cancer: Report of the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project P-1 Study,”Journal of the National Cancer Institute90, no. 18 (September 1998): 1371–88.

     6.  J. Cuzick et al., “Tamoxifen and Breast Density in Women at Increased Risk of Breast Cancer,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute96, no. 8 (April 2004): 621–28.

     7.  M. C. King et al.,Tamoxifen and Breast Cancer Incidence Among Women with Inherited Mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2: National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP-P1) Breast Cancer Prevention Trial,” Journal of the American Medical Association 286, no. 18 (2001): 2251–56.

     8.  K. A. Phillips et al.,“Tamoxifen and Risk of Contralateral Breast Cancer for
BRCA1 and BRCA2Mutation Carriers,” Journal of Clinical Oncology 31, no. 25 (2013): 3091–99.

     9.  N. Orr et al., “Fine-Mapping Identifies Two Additional Breast Cancer Susceptibility Loci at 9q31.2,” Human Molecular Genetics24, no. 10 (May 2015): 2966–84.

   10.  A. C. Antoniou et al., “Common Alleles at 6q25.1 and 1p11.2 Are Associated with Breast Cancer Risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers,” Human Molecular Genetics20, no. 16 (2011): 3304–21.

   11.  V. G. Vogel et al., “Effects of Tamoxifen vs Raloxifene on the Risk of Developing Invasive Breast Cancer and Other Disease Outcomes: The NSABP Study of Tamoxifen and Raloxifene (STAR) P-2 Trial,” Journal of the American Medical Association 295, no. 23 (June 2006): 2727–41.

   12.  J. Cuzick et al., “Selective Oestrogen Receptor Modulators in Prevention of Breast Cancer: An Updated Meta-analysis of Individual Participant Data,” Lancet381, no. 9880 (2013): 1827–34.

   13.  R. T. Chlebowski et al., “Oral Bisphosphonate Use and Breast Cancer Incidence in Postmenopausal Women,” Journal of Clinical Oncology28, no. 22 (2010): 3582–90.

   14.  G. Rennert, M. Pinchev, and H. S. Rennert, “Use of Bisphosphonates and Risk of Postmenopausal Breast Cancer,” Journal of Clinical Oncology 28, no. 22 (2010): 3577–81.

   15.  T. J. Hall and M. Schaueblin, “A Pharmacological Assessment of the Mammalian Osteoclast Vacuolar H+-ATPase,” Bone and Mineral27, no. 2 (1994): 159–66.

   16.  M. Bodmer et al., “Long-Term Metformin Use Is Associated with Decreased Risk of Breast Cancer,” Diabetes Care33, no. 6 (2010): 1304–8.

   17.  R. Govindarajan et al., “Thiazolidinediones and the Risk of Lung, Prostate, and Colon Cancer in Patients with Diabetes,” Journal of Clinical Oncology25, no. 12 (2007): 1476–81.

   18.  F. Frasca et al., “The Role of Insulin Receptors and IGF-I Receptors in Cancer and Other Diseases,” Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry114, no. 1 (2008): 23–37; L. L. Lipscombe et al., “The Impact of Diabetes on Survival Following Breast Cancer,” Breast Cancer Research and Treatment109, no. 2 (2008): 389–95.

   19.  A. DeCensi et al., “Metformin and Cancer Risk in Diabetic Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis,” Cancer Prevention Research3, no. 11 (2010): 1451–61.

   20.  N. D. Barnard et al., “A Low-Fat Vegan Diet Improves Glycemic Control and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in a Randomized Clinical Trial in Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes,” Diabetes Care29, no. 8 (2006): 1777–83.

   21.  M. F. Arisi et al., “All Trans-retinoic Acid (ATRA) Induces Re-differentiation of Early Transformed Breast Epithelial Cells,” International Journal of Oncology 44, no. 6 (2014): 1831–42.

   22.  U. Veronesi et al., “Fifteen-Year Results of a Randomized Phase III Trial of Fenretinide to Prevent Second Breast Cancer,” Annals of Oncology17, no. 7 (2006): 1065–71.

   23.  E. Garattini et al., “Retinoids and Breast Cancer: from Basic Studies to the Clinic and Back Again,” Cancer Treatment Reviews40, no. 6 (2014): 739–49.

   24.  R. E. Harris et al., Women’s Health Initiative, “Breast Cancer and Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs: Prospective Results from the Women’s Health Initiative,” Cancer Research63, no. 18 (September 2003): 6096–101.

   25.  L. Gallicchio et al., “Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs and the Risk of Developing Breast Cancer in a Population-Based Prospective Cohort Study in Washington County, MD,” International Journal of Cancer121, no. 1 (July 2007): 211–15; E. Rahme et al., “Association Between Frequent Use of Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs and Breast Cancer,” BMC Cancer5 (2005): 159; T. M. Brasky et al., “Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drug (NSAID) Use and Breast Cancer Risk in the Western New York Exposures and Breast Cancer (WEB) Study,” Cancer Causes and Control21, no. 9 (2010): 1503–12.

   26.  K. K. Ludwig et al., “Risk Reduction and Survival Benefit of Prophylactic Surgery in BRCA Mutation Carriers, a Systematic Review,” American Journal of Surgery212, no. 4 (2016): 660–69.

   27.  L. Lostumbo et al., “Prophylactic Mastectomy for the Prevention of Breast Cancer,”Cochrane Database Systematic Reviews4, no. 4 (October 2004).

   28.  J. K. Litton et al., “Earlier Age of Onset of BRCA Mutation‐Related Cancers in Subsequent Generations,” Cancer118, no. 2 (2012): 321–25.

   29.  H. B. Nichols et al., “Declining Incidence of Contralateral Breast Cancer in the United States from 1975 to 2006,” Journal of Clinical Oncology29, no. 12 (2011): 1564–69.

   30.  L. Bertelsen et al., “Effect of Systemic Adjuvant Treatment on Risk for Contralateral Breast Cancer in the Women’s Environment, Cancer and Radiation Epidemiology Study,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute 100, no. 1 (2008): 32–40.

   31.  Y. Chen et al., “Epidemiology of Contralateral Breast Cancer,” Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention8 (1999): 855–61.

   32.  A. S. Reiner et al., “Hormone Receptor Status of a First Primary Breast Cancer Predicts Contralateral Breast Cancer Risk in the WECARE Study Population,” Breast Cancer Research19, no. 1 (2017): 83.

   33.  J. Ji and K. Hemminki, “Risk for Contralateral Breast Cancers in a Population Covered by Mammography: Effects of Family History, Age at Diagnosis and Histology,” Breast Cancer and Research Treatment105 (2007): 229–36.

   34.  K. Hemminki, J. Ji, and A. Forsti, “Risks for Familial and Contralateral Breast Cancer Interact Multiplicatively and Cause a High Risk,” Cancer Research67 (2007): 868–70.

   35.  M. K. Graeser et al., “Contralateral Breast Cancer Risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers,” Journal of Clinical Oncology27 (2009): 5887–92.

   36.  J. A. Largent et al., “Reproductive History and Risk of Second Primary Breast Cancer: The WECARE Study,” Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention16 (2007): 906–11.

   37.  J. A. Largent et al., “Reproductive History and Risk of Second Primary Breast Cancer: The WECARE Study,” Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention16 (2007): 906–11.

   38.  N. Druesne-Pecollo et al., “Excess Body Weight and Second Primary Cancer Risk after Breast Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Prospective Studies,” Breast Cancer Research and Treatment135 (2012): 647–54.

   39.  H. B. Nichols et al., “Declining Incidence of Contralateral Breast Cancer in the United States from 1975 to 2006,” Journal of Clinical Oncology29, no. 12 (2011): 1564–69.

   40.  L. Lostumbo, N. E. Carbine, and J. Wallace, “Prophylactic Mastectomy for the Prevention of Breast Cancer,” Cochrane Database Systematic Reviews(November 2010).

   41.  T. Musiello, E. Bornhammar, and C. Saunders, “Breast Surgeons’ Perceptions and Attitudes Towards Contralateral Prophylactic Mastectomy,” ANZ Journal of Surgery83, nos. 7–8 (2013): 527–32.

   42.  C. E. Pesce et al., “Changing Surgical Trends in Young Patients with Early Stage Breast Cancer, 2003 to 2010: A Report from the National Cancer Data Base,” Journal of the American College of Surgeons219, no. 1 (2014): 19–28.

   43.  K. L. Kummerow et al., “Nationwide Trends in Mastectomy for Early-Stage Breast Cancer,”JAMA Surgery150 (2015): 9–16.

   44.  A. K. Arrington et al., “Patient and Surgeon Characteristics Associated with Increased Use of Contralateral Prophylactic Mastectomy in Patients with Breast Cancer,” Annals of Surgical Oncology16, no. 10 (2009): 2697–704.

   45.  U. Güth et al., “Increasing Rates of Contralateral Prophylactic Mastectomy—A Trend Made in USA?” European Journal of Surgical Oncology38, no. 4 (2012): 296–301.

   46.  J. Gahm, M. Wickman, and Y. Brandberg, “Bilateral Prophylactic Mastectomy in Women with Inherited Risk of Breast Cancer—Prevalence of Pain and Discomfort, Impact on Sexuality, Quality of Life and Feelings of Regret Two Years After Surgery,” Breast19, no. 6 (2010): 462–69.

   47.  M. H. Frost et al., “Contralateral Prophylactic Mastectomy: Long-Term Consistency of Satisfaction and Adverse Effects and the Significance of Informed Decision-Making, Quality of Life, and Personality Traits,” Annals of Surgical Oncology18, no. 11 (2011): 3110.

   48.  S. M. Domchek et al., “Association of Risk-Reducing Surgery in BRCA1 or BRCA2 Mutation Carriers with Cancer Risk and Mortality,” Journal of the American Medical Association304, no. 9 (2010): 967–75.

   49.  C. Iavazzo, I. D. Gkegkes, and N. Vrachnis, “Primary Peritoneal Cancer in BRCA Carriers After Prophylactic Bilateral Salpingo-oophorectomy,” Journal of the Turkish German Gynecological Association 17, no. 2 (2016): 73.

   50.  National Comprehensive Cancer Network, “Genetic/Familial High-Risk Assessment: Breast and Ovarian,” NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology, accessed August 25, 2017, https://www.tri-kobe.org/nccn/guideline/gynecological​/english/genetic_familial.pdf.

   51.  T. R. Rebbeck et al., “Effect of Short-Term Hormone Replacement Therapy on Breast Cancer Risk Reduction After Bilateral Prophylactic Oophorectomy in BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers: The PROSE Study Group,” Journal of Clinical Oncology 23, no. 31 (2005): 7804–10.

   52.  K. Armstrong et al., “Hormone Replacement Therapy and Life Expectancy After Prophylactic Oophorectomy in Women with BRCA 1/2 Mutations: A Decision Analysis,” Journal of Clinical Oncology22, no. 6 (2004): 1045–54.

Chapter 8: Breast Cancer Screening and Detection

     1.  J. P. Kösters and P. C. Gøtzsche, “Regular Self-Examination or Clinical Examination for Early Detection of Breast Cancer,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews2 (2003).

     2.  T. Roeke et al., “The Additional Cancer Yield of Clinical Breast Examination in Screening of Women at Hereditary Increased Risk of Breast Cancer: A Systematic Review,” Breast Cancer Research and Treatment147, no. 1 (2014): 15–23.

     3.  F. D. Schwab et al., “Self-Detection and Clinical Breast Examination: Comparison of the Two ‘Classical’ Physical Examination Methods for the Diagnosis of Breast Cancer,” Breast24, no. 1 (2015): 90–92.

     4.  B. L. Sprague et al., “National Performance Benchmarks for Modern Diagnostic Digital Mammography: Update from the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium,” Radiology283, no. 1 (2017): 59–69.

     5.  S. Sayed et al., “Training Health Workers in Clinical Breast Examination for Early Detection of Breast Cancer in Low‐ and Middle‐Income Countries,” Cochrane Database Systematic Reviews 1 (2017).

     6.  B. C. R. Devi, T. S. Tang, and M. Corbex, “Reducing by Half the Percentage of Late-Stage Presentation for Breast and Cervix Cancer over 4 Years: A Pilot Study of Clinical Downstaging in Sarawak, Malaysia,” Annals of Oncology18, no. 7 (2007): 1172–76.

     7.  M. G. Marmot et al., “The Benefits and Harms of Breast Cancer Screening—An Independent Review: A Report Jointly Commissioned by Cancer Research UK and the Department of Health (England) October 2012,” British Journal of Cancer108, no. 11 (2013): 2205.

     8.  K. L. Kummerow et al., “Nationwide Trends in Mastectomy for Early-Stage Breast Cancer,” JAMA Surgery150 (2015): 9–16; S. T. Hawley et al., “Social and Clinical Determinants of Contralateral Prophylactic Mastectomy,” JAMA Surgery 149 (2014): 582–89.

     9.  C. P. McPherson, K. K. Swenson, and M. W. Lee, “The Effects of Mammographic Detection and Comorbidity on the Survival of Older Women with Breast Cancer,” Journal of the American Geriatrics Society50, no. 6 (2002): 1061–68.

   10.  M. M. Eberl et al., “BI-RADS Classification for Management of Abnormal Mammograms,” Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine19, no. 2 (2006): 161–64.

   11.  P. A. Carney et al., “Individual and Combined Effects of Age, Breast Density, and Hormone Replacement Therapy Use on the Accuracy of Screening Mammography,” Annals of Internal Medicine138 (2003): 168–75.

   12.  B. L. Sprague et al., “National Performance Benchmarks for Modern Diagnostic Digital Mammography: Update from the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium,” Radiology283, no. 1 (2017): 59–69.

   13.  S. H. Taplin et al., “Reason for Late-Stage Breast Cancer: Absence of Screening or Detection, or Breakdown in Follow-Up?” Journal of the National Cancer Institute96, no. 20 (October 2004): 1518–27.

   14.  L. Tabar et al., “Mammography Service Screening and Mortality in Breast Cancer Patients: 20-Year Follow-Up Before and After Introduction of Screening,” Lancet361, no. 9367 (2003): 1405–10.

   15.  D. R. Youlden et al., “Incidence and Mortality of Female Breast Cancer in the Asia-Pacific Region,” Cancer Biology and Medicine11 (2014): 101–15.

   16.  R. A. Smith et al., “The Randomized Trials of Breast Cancer Screening: What Have We Learned?” Radiologic Clinics of North America42, no. 5 (2004): 793–806; M. Broeders et al., “The Impact of Mammographic Screening on Breast Cancer Mortality in Europe: A Review of Observational Studies,” Journal of Medical Screening19, no. 1 (2012): 14–25; Preventive Services Task Force, “Screening for Breast Cancer: Recommendations and Rationale,” Annals of Internal Medicine137 (2002): 344–46; D. A. Berry, “Benefits and Risks of Screening Mammography for Women in Their Forties: A Statistical Appraisal,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute 90 (1998): 1431–39.

   17.  E. D. Pisano et al., “Digital Mammographic Imaging Screening Trial (DMIST) Investigators Group: Diagnostic Performance of Digital Versus Film Mammography for Breast-Cancer Screening,” New England Journal of Medicine353, no. 17 (October 2005): 1773–83.

   18.  S. Ciatto et al., “Integration of 3D Digital Mammography with Tomosynthesis for Population Breast-Cancer Screening (STORM): A Prospective Comparison Study,” Lancet Oncology14 (2013): 583–89.

   19.  A. S. Tagliafico et al., “Diagnostic Performance of Contrast-Enhanced Spectral Mammography: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis,” Breast28 (2016): 13–19.

   20.  E. M. Fallenberg et al., “Contrast-Enhanced Spectral Mammography Versus MRI: Initial Results in the Detection of Breast Cancer and Assessment of Tumour Size,” European Radiology24, no. 1 (2014): 256–64.

   21.  P. A. Carney et al., “Factors Associated with Imaging and Procedural Events Used to Detect Breast Cancer After Screening Mammography,” American Journal of Roentgenology188, no. 2 (2007): 385–92.

   22.  J. G. Elmore et al., “Ten-Year Risk of False Positive Screening Mammograms and Clinical Breast Examinations,” New England Journal of Medicine338, no. 16 (April 1998): 1089–96.

   23.  S. Törnberg et al., “A Pooled Analysis of Interval Cancer Rates in Six European Countries,” European Journal of Cancer Prevention19, no. 2 (2010): 87–93.

   24.  P. A. Carney et al., “Individual and Combined Effects of Age, Breast Density, and Hormone Replacement Therapy Use on the Accuracy of Screening Mammography,” Annals of Internal Medicine138, no. 3 (2003): 168–75; T. M. Kolb, J. Lichy, and J. H. Newhouse, “Comparison of the Performance of Screening Mammography, Physical Examination, and Breast US and Evaluation of Factors That Influence Them: An Analysis of 27,825 Patient Evaluations,” Radiology225, no. 1 (2002): 165–75.

   25.  S. S. K. Tang and G. P. H. Gui, “A Review of the Oncologic and Surgical Management of Breast Cancer in the Augmented Breast: Diagnostic, Surgical and Surveillance Challenges,” Annals of Surgical Oncology18, no. 8 (2011): 2173–81.

   26.  M. J. Yaffe and J. G. Mainprize, “Risk of Radiation-Induced Breast Cancer from Mammographic Screening 1,” Radiology258, no. 1 (2011): 98–105.

   27.  L. M. Warren, D. R. Dance, and K. C. Young, “Radiation Risk of Breast Screening in England with Digital Mammography,”British Journal of Radiology89 (November 2016): 1067; D. L. Miglioretti et al., “Radiation-Induced Breast Cancer Incidence and Mortality from Digital Mammography Screening: A Modeling Study,” Annals of Internal Medicine164, no. 4 (2016): 205–14.

   28.  “Patient Safety: Radiation Dose in X-Ray and CT Exams,” RadiologyInfo.org, updated February 8, 2017, https://www.radiologyinfo.org/en/info.cfm?pg=safety​-xray.

   29.  “Patient Safety: Radiation Dose in X-Ray and CT Exams,” RadiologyInfo.org, updated February 8, 2017, https://www.radiologyinfo.org/en/info.cfm?​pg=safety-xray.

   30.  C. H. C. Drossaert, H. Boer, and E. R. Seydel, “Monitoring Women’s Experiences During Three Rounds of Breast Cancer Screening: Results from a Longitudinal Study,” Journal of Medical Screening9, no. 4 (2002): 168–75.

   31.  US Preventive Services Task Force, “Screening for Breast Cancer: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement,” Annals of Internal Medicine151, no. 10 (2009): 716.

   32.  L. M. Schwartz et al., “US Women’s Attitudes to False Positive Mammography Results and Detection of Ductal Carcinoma In Situ: Cross Sectional Survey,” British Medical Journal 320, no. 7250 (2000): 1635–40.

   33.  E. K. Arleo et al., “Comparison of Recommendations for Screening Mammography Using CISNET Models,” Cancer123, no. 19 (October 2017): 3673–80.

   34.  A. S. Tagliafico et al., “Adjunct Screening with Tomosynthesis or Ultrasound in Women with Mammography-Negative Dense Breasts: Interim Report of a Prospective Comparative Trial,” Journal of Clinical Oncology34, no. 16 (2016): 1882–88.

   35.  F. Sardanelli et al., “Multicenter Surveillance of Women at High Genetic Breast Cancer Risk Using Mammography, Ultrasonography, and Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (the High Breast Cancer Risk Italian 1 Study): Final Results,” Investigative Radiology46, no. 2 (2011): 94–105.

   36.  M. E. Brennan et al., “Magnetic Resonance Imaging Screening of the Contralateral Breast in Women with Newly Diagnosed Breast Cancer: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Incremental Cancer Detection and Impact on Surgical Management,” Journal of Clinical Oncology27, no. 33 (2009): 5640–49.

   37.  M. Kriege et al., “Efficacy of MRI and Mammography for Breast-Cancer Screening in Women with a Familial or Genetic Predisposition,” New England Journal of Medicine351, no. 5 (2004): 427–37.

   38.  C. D. Lehman, “Clinical Indications: What Is the Evidence?” European Journal of Radiology81 (2012): S82–S84.

   39.  N. Houssami, R. Turner, and M. Morrow, “Preoperative Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Breast Cancer: Meta-analysis of Surgical Outcomes,” Annals of Surgery257, no. 2 (2013): 249–55.

   40.  M. Morrow, J. Waters, and E. Morris, “MRI for Breast Cancer Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment,” Lancet378, no. 9805 (2011): 1804–11.

   41.  National Comprehensive Cancer Network, “Guidelines for Breast Cancer Screening and Diagnosis,” http://www.NCCN.org.

   42.  C. C. Riedl et al., “Triple-Modality Screening Trial for Familial Breast Cancer Underlines the Importance of Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Questions the Role of Mammography and Ultrasound Regardless of Patient Mutation Status, Age, and Breast Density,” Journal of Clinical Oncology33, no. 10 (2015): 1128–35.

   43.  E. M. Fallenberg et al., “Contrast-Enhanced Spectral Mammography versus MRI: Initial Results in the Detection of Breast Cancer and Assessment of Tumour Size,” European Radiology24, no. 1 (2014): 256–64.

   44.  US Food and Drug Administration, “FDA Drug Safety Communication: FDA Evaluating the Risk of Brain Deposits with Repeated Use of Gadolinium-Based Contrast Agents for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI),” FDA.gov, accessed August 27, 2017, http://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DrugSafety/ucm455386.htm.

   45.  J. Hermans, “The Value of Aspiration Cytologic Examination of the Breast: A Statistical Review of the Medical Literature,” Cancer69, no. 8 (April 1992): 2104–10; F. O’Malley et al., “Clinical Correlates of False-Negative Fine Needle Aspirations of the Breast in a Consecutive Series of 1,005 Patients,” Surgery, Gynecology and Obstetrics176, no. 4 (April 1993): 360–64; N. J. Wollenberg et al., “Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology of the Breast: A Review of 321 Cases with Statistical Evaluation,” Acta Cytologica29 (1985): 425–29.

   46.  P. Crystal et al., “Accuracy of Sonographically Guided 14-Gauge Core-Needle Biopsy: Results of 715 Consecutive Breast Biopsies with at Least Two-Year Follow-Up of Benign Lesions,” Journal of Clinical Ultrasound33, no. 2 (February 2005): 47–52; M. Memarsadeghi et al., “Value of 14-Gauge Ultrasound-Guided Large-Core Needle Biopsy of Breast Lesions: Own Results in Comparison with the Literature,” RoFo175, no. 3 (March 2003): 374–80; J. M. Schoonjans and R. F. Brem, “Fourteen-Gauge Ultrasonographically Guided Large-Core Needle Biopsy of Breast Masses,” Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine 20, no. 9 (September 2001): 967–72; D. N. Smith et al., “The Utility of Ultrasonographically Guided Large-Core Needle Biopsy: Results from 500 Consecutive Breast Biopsies,” Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine20, no. 1 (January 2001): 43–49.

   47.  C. F. Loughran and C. R. Keeling, “Seeding of Tumour Cells Following Breast Biopsy: A Literature Review,” British Journal of Radiology84, no. 1006 (2011): 869–74.

   48.  L. E. Hoorntje et al., “Tumour Cell Displacement after 14G Breast Biopsy,” European Journal of Surgical Oncology30, no. 5 (June 2004): 520–25.

   49.  C. Peters-Engl et al., “The Impact of Preoperative Breast Biopsy on the Risk of Sentinel Lymph Node Metastases: Analysis of 2502 Cases from the Austrian Sentinel Node Biopsy Study Group,” British Journal of Cancer91, no. 10 (October 2004): 1782–86.

   50.  N. M. Diaz, J. R. Mayes, and V. Vrcel, “Breast Epithelial Cells in Dermal Angiolymphatic Spaces: A Manifestation of Benign Mechanical Transport,” Human Pathology36 (2005): 310–13; I. J. Bleiweiss, C. S. Nagi, and S. Jaffer, “Axillary Sentinel Lymph Nodes Can Be Falsely Positive Due to Iatrogenic Displacement and Transport of Benign Epithelial Cells in Patients with Breast Carcinoma,” Journal of Clinical Oncology24, no. 13 (2006): 2013–18.

   51.  T. P. Butler and P. M. Gullino, “Quantitation of Cell Shedding into Efferent Blood of Mammary Adenocarcinoma,” Cancer Research35, no. 3 (1975): 512–16.

   52.  M. Silverstein, “Where’s the Outrage?” Journal of the American College of Surgeons208, no. 1 (January 2009): 78–79.

   53.  L. G. Gutwein et al., “Utilization of Minimally Invasive Breast Biopsy for the Evaluation of Suspicious Breast Lesions,” American Journal of Surgery202, no. 2 (2011): 127–32.

   54.  W. Bruening, K. Schoelles, and J. Treadwell, “Comparative Effectiveness of Core-Needle Biopsies and Open Surgical Biopsy for the Diagnosis of Breast Lesions” (Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, 2009).

   55.  W. Bruening, K. Schoelles, and J. Treadwell, “Comparative Effectiveness of Core-Needle Biopsies and Open Surgical Biopsy for the Diagnosis of Breast Lesions” (Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, 2009).

   56.  C. Conry, “Evaluation of a Breast Complaint: Is It Cancer?” American Family Physician49 (1994): 445–50, 453–54.

   57.  G. Fariselli et al., “Localized Mastalgia as Presenting Symptom in Breast Cancer,” European Journal of Surgical Oncology14 (1988): 213–15; F. Lumachi et al., “Breast Complaints and Risk of Breast Cancer: Population-Based Study of 2,879 Self-Selected Women and Long-Term Follow-Up,” Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy56 (2002): 88–92; National Breast Cancer Centre, “The Investigation of a New Breast Symptom: A Guide for General Practitioners,” Cancer Australia, last updated October 23 2017, https://canceraustralia.gov.au/publications-and-resources/cancer-australia​-publications/investigation-new-breast-symptom​-guide​-general​-practitioners.

   58.  M. M. Koo et al., “Typical and Atypical Presenting Symptoms of Breast Cancer and Their Associations with Diagnostic Intervals: Evidence from a National Audit of Cancer Diagnosis,” Cancer Epidemiology48 (May 2017): 140–46.

   59.  J. N. Clegg-Lamptey et al., “Breast Cancer Risk in Patients with Breast Pain in Accra, Ghana,” East African Medical Journal84, no. 5 (May 2007): 215–18.

   60.  B. A. Ayoade, A. O. Tade, and B. A. Salami, “Clinical Features and Pattern of Presentation of Breast Diseases in Surgical Outpatient Clinic of a Suburban Tertiary Hospital in South-West Nigeria,” Nigerian Journal of Surgery : Official Publication of the Nigerian Surgical Research Society18, no. 1 (2012): 13–16.

   61.  D. N. Ader and M. W. Browne, “Prevalence and Impact of Cyclic Mastalgia in a United States Clinic-Based Sample,” American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology177, no. 1 (1997): 126–32.

   62.  M. B. Barton, J. G. Elmore, and S. W. Fletcher, “Breast Symptoms Among Women Enrolled in a Health Maintenance Organization: Frequency, Evaluation, and Outcome,” Annals of Internal Medicine130, no. 8(1999): 651–57.

   63.  E. L. Davies et al., “The Long-Term Course of Mastalgia,” Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine91, no. 9 (1998): 462–64.

   64.  R. L. Smith, S. Pruthi, and L. A. Fitzpatrick, “Evaluation and Management of Breast Pain,” Mayo Clinic Proceedings79, no. 3. (2004): 353–72.

   65.  “Klimberg Versus Etiology and Management of Breast Pain,” in Diseases of the Breast, J. R. Harris et al., eds., (Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven, 1996), 99–106.

   66.  N. L. Pashby et al., “A Clinical Trial of Evening Primrose Oil in Mastalgia [abstract],” British Journal of Surgery68 (1981): 801; P. E. Preece et al., “Evening Primrose Oil (Efamol) for Mastalgia,” Clinical Uses of Essential Fatty Acids, D. F. Horrobin, ed., (Montreal, Quebec: Eden Press, 1982), 147–54; D. F. Horrobin, “The Role of Essential Fatty Acids and Prostaglandins in the Premenstrual Syndrome,” Journal of Reproductive Medicine28, no. 7 (1983): 465–68;  C. A. Gateley et al., “Plasma Fatty Acid Profiles in Benign Breast Disorders,” British Journal of Surgery79 (1992): 407–9.

   67.  S. Pruthi et al., “Vitamin E and Evening Primrose Oil for Management of Cyclical Mastalgia: A Randomized Pilot Study,” Alternative Medicine Review15, no. 1 (2010): 59.

   68.  E. G. Loch, H. Selle, and N. Boblitz, “Treatment of Premenstrual Syndrome with a Phytopharmaceutical Formulation Containing Vitex Agnus Castus,” Journal of Women’s Health and Gender-Based Medicine9, no. 3 (2000): 315–20.

   69.  A. Cassidy, S. Bingham, and K. D. Setchell, “Biological Effects of a Diet of Soy Protein Rich in Isoflavones on the Menstrual Cycle of Premenopausal Women,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 60 (1994): 333–40.

   70.  C. Nagata et al., “Decreased Serum Estradiol Concentration Associated with High Dietary Intake of Soy Products in Premenopausal Japanese Women,” Nutrition and Cancer 29, no. 3 (1997): 228–33.

   71.  N. F. Boyd et al., “Effect of a Low-Fat High-Carbohydrate Diet on Symptoms of Cyclical Mastopathy,” Lancet 2, no. 8603 (1988): 128–32; P. J. Goodwin et al., “Elevated High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol and Dietary Fat Intake in Women with Cyclic Mastopathy,” American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology179, no. 2 (1998): 430–37.

   72.  N. F. Boyd et al., “Canadian Diet and Breast Cancer Prevention Study Group: Effects at Two Years of a Low-Fat, High-Carbohydrate Diet on Radiologic Features of the Breast: Results from a Randomized Trial,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute89, no. 7 (1997): 488–96.

   73.  J. P. Minton et al., “Clinical and Biochemical Studies on Methylxanthine-Related Fibrocystic Breast Disease,” Surgery90 (1981): 299–304; B. Bullough, M. Hindey-Alexander, H. Fetou, “Methylxanthines and Fibrocystic Breast Disease: A Study of Correlations,” Nurse Practitioner15 (1990): 36; J. P. Minton and H. Abou-Issa, “Nonendocrine Theories of Etiology of Benign Breast Disease,” World Journal of Surgery1989; 13: 680–84.

   74.  L. M. Dickerson, P. J. Mazyck, and M. H. Hunter, “Premenstrual Syndrome,” American Family Physician67, no. 8 (2003): 1743–52; P. W. Budoff, “The Use of Prostaglandin Inhibitors for the Premenstrual Syndrome,” The Journal of Reproductive Medicine28, no. 7 (1983): 469–78.

   75.  H. Fox et al., “Are Patients with Mastalgia Anxious, and Does Relaxation Therapy Help?” Breast6, no. 3 (1997): 138–42; L. Thicke et al., “Acupuncture for Treatment of Noncyclic Breast Pain: A Pilot Study,” American Journal of Chinese Medicine39, no. 6 (2011): 1117–29; S. Colegrave, C. Holcombe, P. Salmon, “Psychological Characteristics of Women Presenting with Breast Pain,” Journal of Psychosomatic Research50, no. 6 (2001): 303–7; A. A. Wren et al., “Yoga for Persistent Pain: New Findings and Directions for an Ancient Practice,” Pain152, no. 3 (2011): 477; F. Zeidan et al., “Mindfulness Meditation–Related Pain Relief: Evidence for Unique Brain Mechanisms in the Regulation of Pain,” Neuroscience Letters520, no. 2 (2012): 165–73.

   76.  M. C. Wilson and R. A. Sellwood, “Therapeutic Value of a Supporting Brassiere in Mastodynia,” BMJ 2, no. 6027 (1976): 90; B. R. Mason, K. A. Page, and K. Fallon, “An Analysis of Movement and Discomfort of the Female Breast During Exercise and the Effects of Breast Support in Three Cases,” Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport2, no. 2 (1999): 134–44.

   77.  M. D. Sullivan, J. A. Turner, and J. Romano, “Chronic Pain in Primary Care: Identification and Management of Psychosocial Factors,” Journal of Family Practice32, no. 2 (1991): 193–99.

   78.  A. D. Irving and S. L. Morrison, “Effectiveness of Topical Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs in the Management of Breast Pain,” Journal of the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh43, no. 3 (1998): 158–59; G. Gabbrielli et al., “Nimesulide in the Treatment of Mastalgia,” Drugs46, suppl. 1 (1993): 137–39.

   79.  L. E. Hughes et al., Benign Disorders and Diseases of the Breast(London: WB Saunders, 2000).

   80.  A. N. Hussain, C. Policarpio, and M. T. Vincent, “Evaluating Nipple Discharge,” Obstetrical and Gynecological Survey61, no. 4 (April 2006): 278–83.

   81.  H. Gülay et al., “Management of Nipple Discharge,” Journal of the American College of Surgeons178, no. 5 (1994): 471–74.

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   83.  V. J. Harris and V. P. Jackson, “Indications for Breast Imaging in Women Under Age 35 Years,” Radiology172 (1989): 445–48; M. Morrow, S. Wong, and L. Venta, “The Evaluation of Breast Masses in Women Younger than Forty Years of Age,” Surgery124 (1998): 634–40.

   84.  F. M. Hall et al., “Nonpalpable Breast Lesions: Recommendations for Biopsy Based on Suspicion of Carcinoma at Mammography,” Radiology167 (1988): 353–58; P. Crone et al., “The Predictive Value of Three Diagnostic Procedures in the Evaluation of Palpable Breast Tumours,” Ovid Healthstar Annales Chirurgiae et Gynaecologiae73, no. 5 (1984): 273–76.

   85.  S. V. Hilton et al., “Real-Time Breast Sonography: Application in 300 Consecutive Patients,” American Journal of Roentgenology147, no. 3 (September 1986): 479–86.

   86.  W. A. Berg et al., “Cystic Breast Masses and the ACRIN 6666 Experience,” Radiologic Clinics of North America48, no. 5 (2010): 931–87.

   87.  R. J. Brenner et al., “Spontaneous Regression of Interval Benign Cysts of the Breast,” Radiology193, no. 2 (1994): 365–68.

   88.  C. P. Daly et al., “Complicated Breast Cysts on Sonography: Is Aspiration Necessary to Exclude Malignancy?” Academic Radiology15, no. 5 (2008): 610–17; Y. W. Chang et al., “Sonographic Differentiation of Benign and Malignant Cystic Lesions of the Breast,” Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine26, no. 1 (2007): 47–53; W. Berg, C. Campassi, and O. Ioffe, “Cystic Lesions of the Breast: Sonographic-Pathologic Correlation,” Radiology227, no. 1 (2003): 183–91.

   89.  R. J. Santen and R. Mansel, “Benign Breast Disorders,” New England Journal of Medicine353 (2005): 275.

   90.  A. D. DiVasta, C. Weldon, and B. I. Labow, “The Breast: Examination and Lesions,” in Goldstein’s Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology, 6th ed., ed. L. Emans and M. R. Laufer (Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2012), 405.

   91.  Y. Jayasinghe and P. S. Simmons, “Fibroadenomas in Adolescence,” Current Opinion in Obstetrics and Gynecology21, no. 5 (October 2009): 402.

   92.  J. A. Harvey et al., “Short-Term Follow-Up of Palpable Breast Lesions with Benign Imaging Features: Evaluation of 375 Lesions in 320 Women,” American Journal of Roentgenology193, no. 6 (December 2009): 1723.

   93.  D. M. Dent and P. J. Cant, “Fibroadenoma,” World Journal of Surgery13, no. 6 (November–December 1989): 706–10.

   94.  L. Deschênes et al., “Beware of Breast Fibroadenomas in Middle-Aged Women,” Canadian Journal of Surgery28, no. 4 (July 1985): 372–74; K. Guzanowski-Konakry, E. G. Harrison Jr., and W. S. Payne, “Lobular Carcinoma Arising in Fibroadenoma of the Breast,” Cancer 35, no. 2 (February 1975): 450–56.

   95.  P. J. Littrup et al., “Cryotherapy for Breast Fibroadenomas,” Radiology234, no. 1 (January 2005): 63–72; C. S. Kaufman et al., “Office-Based Ultrasound-Guided Cryoablation of Breast Fibroadenomas,” American Journal of Surgery 184, no. 5 (November 2002): 394–400; I. Grady, H. Gorsuch, and S. Wilburn-Bailey, “Long-Term Outcome of Benign Fibroadenomas Treated by Ultrasound-Guided Percutaneous Excision,” Breast Journal14 (2008): 275–78.

   96.  C. S. Kaufman et al., “Office-Based Cryoablation of Breast Fibroadenomas: 12-Month Follow-Up,” Journal of the American College of Surgeons198, no. 6 (2004): 914–23.

   97.  O. Kenneth Macdonald et al., “Malignant Phyllodes Tumor of the Female Breast,” Cancer107, no. 9 (2006): 2127–33.

   98.  F. A. Tavassoli and P. Devilee, eds., Pathology and Genetics of Tumours of the Breast and Female Genital Organs(Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer, 2003).

   99.  M. F. Dillon et al., “Needle Core Biopsy in the Diagnosis of Phyllodes Neoplasm,” Surgery140, no. 5 (2006): 779–84; A. H. Lee, “Recent Developments in the Histological Diagnosis of Spindle Cell Carcinoma, Fibromatosis and Phyllodes Tumour of the Breast,” Histopathology52, no. 1 (January 2008): 45–57; A. H. Lee et al., “Histological Features Useful in the Distinction of Phyllodes Tumour and Fibroadenoma on Needle Core Biopsy of the Breast,” Histopathology51, no. 3 (September 2007): 336.

100.  R. J. Barth Jr. et al., “A Prospective, Multi-institutional Study of Adjuvant Radiotherapy After Resection of Malignant Phyllodes Tumors,” Annals of Surgical Oncology 16, no. 8 (August 2009): 2288–94; M. L. Telli et al., “Phyllodes Tumors of the Breast: Natural History, Diagnosis, and Treatment,” Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network 5, no. 3 (March 2007): 324–30.

101.  M. S. Lenhard et al., “Phyllodes Tumour of the Breast: Clinical Follow-Up of 33 Cases of This Rare Disease,” European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology 138, no. 2 (2008): 217–21.

102.  J. Hoon Yu et al., “Breast Diseases During Pregnancy and Lactation,” Obstetrics & Gynecology Science56, no. 3 (2013): 143–59.

103.  M. S. Soo et al., “Tubular Adenomas of the Breast Imaging Findings with Histologic Correlation,” American Journal of Roentgenology174, no. 3 (2000): 757–61; M. Guray and A. A. Sahin, “Benign Breast Diseases: Classification, Diagnosis, and Management,” Oncologist11, no. 5 (May 2006): 435–49.

104.  W. L. Donegan, “Common Benign Conditions of the Breast,” in Cancer of the Breast, 5th ed., W. L. Donegan and J. S. Spratt (St. Louis: Saunders, 2002): 67–110; A. D. Montemarano, P. Sau, and W. D. James, “Superficial Papillary Adenomatosis of the Nipple: A Case Report and Review of the Literature,” Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology33 (1995): 871–75.

105.  S. Jaffer, I. J. Bleiweiss, and C. Nagi, “Incidental Intraductal Papillomas (< 2 mm) of the Breast Diagnosed on Needle Core Biopsy Do Not Need to Be Excised,”Breast Journal19, no. 2 (2013): 130–33.

106.  M. K. Sydnor et al., “Underestimation of the Presence of Breast Carcinoma in Papillary Lesions Initially Diagnosed at Core-Needle Biopsy,” Radiology242, no. 1 (2007):
58–62.

107.  M. S. Soo, P. J. Kornguth, and B. S. Hertzberg, “Fat Necrosis in the Breast: Sonographic Features,” Radiology206, no. 1 (January 1998): 261–69.

108.  C. de Blacam et al., “Evaluation of Clinical Outcomes and Aesthetic Results after Autologous Fat Grafting for Contour Deformities of the Reconstructed Breast,” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery128, no. 5 (2011): 411e–18e.

109.  B. Erguvan-Dogan and W. T. Yang, “Direct Injection of Paraffin into the Breast: Mammographic, Sonographic, and MRI Features of Early Complications,” American Journal of Roentgenology186, no. 3 (March 2006): 888–94.

110.  S. Majedah, I. Alhabshi, and S. Salim, “Granulomatous Reaction Secondary to Intramammary Silicone Injection,” BMJ Case Reports2013(February 2013).

111.  R. Lewin et al., “Risk Factors for Complications After Breast Reduction Surgery,” Journal of Plastic Surgery and Hand Surgery 48, no. 1 (2014): 10–14.

112.  I. J. Wagner, W. M. Tong, and E. G. Halvorson, “A Classification System for Fat Necrosis in Autologous Breast Reconstruction,” Annals of Plastic Surgery 70, no. 5 (2013): 553–56.

113.  F. Meric et al., “Long-Term Complications Associated with Breast-Conservation Surgery and Radiotherapy,” Annals of Surgical Oncology9, no. 6 (July 2002): 543–49; M. D. Piroth et al., “Fat Necrosis and Parenchymal Scarring after Breast-Conserving Surgery and Radiotherapy with an Intraoperative Electron or Fractionated, Percutaneous Boost: A Retrospective Comparison,” Breast Cancer 21, no. 4 (2004): 409–14.

114.  L. H. Amir et al., “Incidence of Breast Abscess in Lactating Women: Report from an Australian Cohort,” BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology111, no. 12 (2004): 1378–81.

115.  A. Bharat et al., “Predictors of Primary Breast Abscesses and Recurrence,” World Journal of Surgery33, no. 12 (December 2009): 2582–86.

116.  J. D. Berna-Serna and M. Madrigal, “Percutaneous Management of Breast Abscesses. An Experience of 39 Cases,” Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology30, no. 1 (January 2004): 1–6.

117.  J. P. Wilson et al., “Idiopathic Granulomatous Mastitis: In Search of a Therapeutic Paradigm,” American Journal of Surgery73 (2007): 798–802.

118.  W. S. Symmers, “Silicone Mastitis in ‘Topless’ Waitresses and Some Other Varieties of Foreign-Body Mastitis,” British Medical Journal3, no. 5609 (1968): 19–22.

119.  M. E. Bouton et al., “Management of Idiopathic Granulomatous Mastitis with Observation,” American Journal of Surgery210 (2015): 258.

120.  S. Imoto et al., “Idiopathic Granulomatous Mastitis: Case Report and Review of the Literature,” Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology27, no. 4 (August 1997): 274–77; A. Krause, B. Gerber, and E. Rhode, “Puerperal and Non-puerperal Mastitis,” Zentralblatt für Gynäkologie116, no. 8 (1994): 488–91; S. Akbulut et al., “Is Methotrexate an Acceptable Treatment in the Management of Idiopathic Granulomatous Mastitis?” Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics284, no. 5 (2011): 1189–95.

121.  K. P. Hunfeld and R. Bassler, “Lymphocytic Mastitis and Fibrosis of the Breast in Long-Standing Insulin-Dependent Diabetics,” General and Diagnostic Pathology143, no. 1 (July 1997): 49–58.

122.  W. W. Logan and N. Y. Hoffman, “Diabetic Fibrous Breast Disease,” Radiology172, no. 3 (1989): 667–70.

123.  G. M. K. Tse et al., “Hamartoma of the Breast: A Clinicopathological Review,” Journal of Clinical Pathology55, no. 12 (2002): 951–54.

124.  G. M. Tse et al., “Ductal Carcinoma in Situ Arising in Mammary Hamartomas,” Journal of Clinical Pathology 55 (2002): 541–42; M. Herbert et al., “Breast Hamartomas: Clinicopathological and Immunohistochemical Studies of 24 Cases,” Histopathology41 (2002): 30–34.

125.  R. Salvador et al., “Pseudo-angiomatous Stromal Hyperplasia Presenting as a Breast Mass: Imaging Findings in Three Patients,” Breast13, no. 5 (2004): 431–35.

126.  C. L. Mercado et al., “Pseudoangiomatous Stromal Hyperplasia of the Breast: Sonographic Features with Histopathologic Correlation,” Breast Journal 10, no. 5 (2004): 427–32; S. D. Raj et al., “Pseudoangiomatous Stromal Hyperplasia of the Breast: Multimodality Review with Pathologic Correlation,” Current Problems in Diagnostic Radiology46, no. 2 (2017): 130–35.

127.  L. Celliers, D. D. Wong, and A. Bourke, “Pseudoangiomatous Stromal Hyperplasia: A Study of the Mammographic and Sonographic Features,” Clinical Radiology65, no. 2 (2010): 145–49.

128.  G. C. Hargaden et al., “Analysis of the Mammographic and Sonographic Features of Pseudoangiomatous Stromal Hyperplasia,” American Journal of Roentgenology191, no. 2 (2008): 359–63.

129.  A. C. Degnim et al., “Pseudoangiomatous Stromal Hyperplasia and Breast Cancer Risk,” Annals of Surgical Oncology17, no. 12 (2010): 3269–77.

130.  E. E. Lower, H. H. Hawkins, and R. P. Baughman, “Breast Disease in Sarcoidosis,” Sarcoidosis, Vasculitis, and Diffuse Lung Diseases: Official Journal of World Association of Sarcoidosis and Other Granulomatous Disorders18, no. 3 (2001): 301–6.

131.  P. P. Rosen, Breast Pathology, 3rd Edition(Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2009).

Chapter 9: Cancer Happens: A Newly Diagnosed Starter Kit

     1.  C. I. Li, D. J. Uribe, and J. R. Daling, “Clinical Characteristics of Different Histologic Types of Breast Cancer,” British Journal of Cancer93, no. 9 (2005): 1046–52.

     2.  A. Bane, “Ductal Carcinoma In Situ:What the Pathologist Needs to Know and Why,” International Journal of Breast Cancer2013 (2013).

     3.  M. E. Sanders et al., “Continued Observation of the Natural History of Low-Grade Ductal Carcinoma In Situ Reaffirms Proclivity for Local Recurrence Even After More than 30 Years of Follow Up,” Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc.28, no. 5 (May 2015): 662–69.

     4.  S. A. Lari and H. M. Kuerer, “Biological Markers in DCIS and Risk of Breast Recurrence: A Systematic Review,” Journal of Cancer2 (2011): 232–61.

     5.  National Comprehensive Cancer Network, “NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology: Breast Cancer,” http://www.nccn.org/professionals/physician_gls/pdf​/breast.pdf.

     6.  B. C. Pestalozzi et al., “Distinct Clinical and Prognostic Features of Infiltrating Lobular Carcinoma of the Breast: Combined Results of 15 International Breast Cancer Study Group Clinical Trials,” Journal of Clinical Oncology26, no. 18 (2008): 3006–14.

     7.  N. Wasif et al., “Invasive Lobular vs. Ductal Breast Cancer: A Stage-Matched Comparison of Outcomes,” Annals of Surgical Oncology17, no. 7 (2010): 1862–69; J. G.Molland et al., “Infiltrating Lobular Carcinoma—A Comparison of Diagnosis, Management and Outcome with Infiltrating Duct Carcinoma,” Breast13, no. 5 (2004): 389–96.

     8.  I. Jatoi et al., “Breast Cancer Adjuvant Therapy: Time to Consider Its Time-Dependent Effects,” Journal of Clinical Oncology29, no. 17 (2011): 2301–4.

     9.  K. Wu et al., “Meta-analysis on the Association Between Pathologic Complete Response and Triple-Negative Breast Cancer After Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy,” World Journal of Surgical Oncology12, no. 1 (2014): 95.

   10.  C. Liedtke et al., “Response to Neoadjuvant Therapy and Long-Term Survival in Patients with Triple-Negative Breast Cancer,” Journal of Clinical Oncology26, no. 8 (2008): 1275–81.

   11.  P. Cortazar et al., “Pathological Complete Response and Long-Term Clinical Benefit in Breast Cancer: The CTNeoBC Pooled Analysis,” Lancet384, no. 9938 (2014): 164–72.

   12.  C. E. DeSantis et al., “Breast Cancer Statistics, 2015: Convergence of Incidence Rates Between Black and White Women,” CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians66, no. 1 (2016): 31–42; B. A. Kohler et al., “Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, 1975–2011: Featuring Incidence of Breast Cancer Subtypes by Race/Ethnicity, Poverty, and State,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute107, no. 6 (2015): djv048; R. M. Amimi et al., “Traditional Breast Cancer Risk Factors in Relation to Molecular Subtypes of Breast Cancer,” Breast Cancer Research and Treatment131 (2012): 159–67.

   13.  K. C. Aalders et al., “Characterisation of Multifocal Breast Cancer Using the 70-Gene Signature in Clinical Low-Risk Patients Enrolled in the EORTC 10041/BIG 03–04 MINDACT Trial,” European Journal of Cancer79 (2017): 98–105; J. A.Sparano et al., “Prospective Validation of a 21-Gene Expression Assay in Breast Cancer,” New England Journal of Medicine373, no. 21 (2015): 2005–14.

   14.  J. Iqbal et al., “Differences in Breast Cancer Stage at Diagnosis and Cancer-Specific Survival by Race and Ethnicity in the United States,” Journal of the American Medical Association 313, no. 2 (2015): 165–73; “Breast Cancer Survival Rates,” American Cancer Society, last revised December 20, 2017, http://www.cancer.org/cancer​/breastcancer/detailedguide/breast-cancer-survival-by-stage.

   15.  American Cancer Society, Global Cancer Facts & Figures,3rd ed. (Atlanta: American Cancer Society, 2015), accessed September 23, 2017, https://www.cancer​.org/content​/dam/cancer-org/research/cancer-facts-and-statistics/global-cancer-facts​-and-figures​/global-cancer-facts-and-figures-3rd-edition.pdf.

   16.  A. M. Soto et al., “Does Breast Cancer Start in the Womb?” Basic and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology102, no. 2 (2008): 125–33.

   17.  P. G. M. Peer et al., “Age-Dependent Growth Rate of Primary Breast Cancer,” Cancer 71 (1993): 3547–51.

   18.  U. Del Monte, “Does the Cell Number 109 Still Really Fit One Gram of Tumor Tissue?” Cell Cycle8, no. 3 (2009): 505–6.

   19.  H. G. Welch and W. C. Black, “Using Autopsy Series to Estimate the Disease ‘Reservoir’ for Ductal Carcinoma In Situ of the Breast: How Much More Breast Cancer Can We Find?” Annals of Internal Medicine127, no. 11 (1997): 1023–28.

   20.  P. H. Zahl, P. C. Gøtzsche, and J. Mæhlen, “Natural History of Breast Cancers Detected in the Swedish Mammography Screening Programme: A Cohort Study,” Lancet Oncology12, no. 12 (2011): 1118–24.

   21.  K. D. Miller et al., “Cancer Treatment and Survivorship Statistics,” CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians66 (2016): 271–89.

   22.  N. Howlader et al., SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 1975–2012(Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute, 2015), http://seer.cancer.gov/csr/1975_2012.

   23.  D. A. Berry et al., “Effect of Screening and Adjuvant Therapy on Mortality from Breast Cancer,” New England Journal of Medicine353 (2005): 1784–92.

   24.  F. Cardoso et al., “70-Gene Signature as an Aid to Treatment Decisions in Early-Stage Breast Cancer,” New England Journal of Medicine375, no. 8 (2016): 717–29.

   25.  R. J. Simes and A. S. Coates, “Patient Preferences for Adjuvant Chemotherapy of Early Breast Cancer: How Much Benefit Is Needed?” JNCI Monographs2001, no. 30 (2001): 146–52.

   26.  “Dose-Dense Chemotherapy Improves Outcomes in Breast Cancer,” Medscape, accessed December 9, 2017, https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/889697?​nlid=​119488_2202.

   27.  E. L. Mayer, “Early and Late Long-Term Effects of Adjuvant Chemotherapy,” inAmerican Society of Clinical Oncology Educational Book 2013 (Houston, TX: ASCO University, 2013), 9–14, https://meetinglibrary.asco.org/record/78715/edbook.

   28.  I. F. Tannock et al., “Cognitive Impairment Associated with Chemotherapy for Cancer: Report of a Workshop,” Journal of Clinical Oncology22, no. 11 (2004): 2233–39.

   29.  V. Fuchs-Tarlovsky, “Role of Antioxidants in Cancer Therapy,” Nutrition29, no. 1 (2013): 15–21.

   30.  M. G. Marmot et al., “The Benefits and Harms of Breast Cancer Screening: An Independent Review: A Report Jointly Commissioned by Cancer Research UK and the Department of Health (England), October 2012,” British Journal of Cancer108, no. 11 (2013): 2205–40.

   31.  J. A. van der Hage et al, “Preoperative Chemotherapy in Primary Operable Breast Cancer: Results from the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Trial,” Journal of Clinical Oncology19, no. 22 (2001): 4224–37.

   32.  A. F. Schott and D. F. Hayes, “Defining the Benefits of Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer,” Journal of Clinical Oncology 30, no. 15 (May 2012): 1747–49.

   33.  M. Chavez-MacGregor et al., “Delayed Initiation of Adjuvant Chemotherapy Among Patients with Breast Cancer,” JAMA Oncology2, no. 3 (2016): 322–29.

   34.  B. Fisher et al., “Eight-Year Results of a Randomized Clinical Trial Comparing Total Mastectomy and Lumpectomy with or Without Irradiation in the Treatment of Breast Cancer,” New England Journal of Medicine 320 (1989): 822–28; D. Sarrazin et al., “Conservative Treatment Versus Mastectomy in Breast Cancer Tumors with Macroscopic Diameter of 20 Millimeters or Less: The Experience of the Institut Gustave-Roussy,” Cancer53 (1984): 1209–13; U. Veronesi et al., “Breast Conservation Is the Treatment of Choice in Small Breast Cancer: Long-Term Results of a Randomized Trial,” European Journal of Cancer26 (1990): 668–70; J. A. van Dongen et al., “Randomized Clinical Trial to Assess the Value of Breast-Conserving Therapy in Stage I and II Breast Cancer, EORTC 10801 Trial,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute Monograms11 (1992): 8–15; M. Blichert-Toft et al., “Danish Randomized Trial Comparing Breast Conservation Therapy with Mastectomy: Six Years of Life-Table Analysis. Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute Monograms11 (1992): 19–25; K. Straus et al., “Results of the National Cancer Institute Early Breast Cancer Trial,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute Monograms27 (1992): 11–32.

   35.  Early Breast Cancer Trialists’ Collaborative Group, “Effects of Radiotherapy and of Differences in the Extent of Surgery for Early Breast Cancer on Local Recurrence and 15-Year Survival: An Overview of the Randomised Trials,” Lancet366, no. 9503 (2006): 2087–2106.

   36.  B. Fisher et al., “Twenty-Year Follow-Up of a Randomized Trial Comparing Total Mastectomy, Lumpectomy, and Lumpectomy Plus Irradiation for the Treatment of Invasive Breast Cancer,” New England Journal of Medicine347, no. 16 (2002): 1233–41; J. A. van Dongen et al., “Long-Term Results of a Randomized Trial Comparing Breast-Conserving Therapy with Mastectomy: European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Trial,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute92 (2000): 1143–50; J. A. Jacobson et al., “Ten-Year Results of a Comparison of Conservation with Mastectomy in the Treatment of Stage I and II Breast Cancer,” New England Journal of Medicine332 (1995): 907–11; A. D. Morris et al., “Breast-Conserving Therapy vs Mastectomy in Early-Stage Breast Cancer: A Meta-analysis of 10-Year Survival,” Cancer Journal from Scientific American3 (1997): 6–12; M. M. Poggi et al., “Eighteen‐Year Results in the Treatment of Early Breast Carcinoma
with Mastectomy Versus Breast Conservation Therapy,” Cancer98, no. 4 (2003):
697–702.

   37.  A. P. Kiess et al., “Adjuvant Trastuzumab Reduces Locoregional Recurrence in Women Who Receive Breast‐Conservation Therapy for Lymph Node‐Negative, Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2‐Positive Breast Cancer,” Cancer118, no. 8 (2012): 1982–88.

   38.  P. L. Nguyen et al., “Breast Cancer Subtype Approximated by Estrogen Receptor, Progesterone Receptor, and HER-2 Is Associated with Local and Distant Recurrence After Breast-Conserving Therapy,” Journal of Clinical Oncology26, no. 14 (2008): 2373–78.

   39.  J. Canavan et al., “Local Recurrence in Women with Stage I Breast Cancer: Declining Rates over Time in a Large, Population-Based Cohort,” International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics88, no. 1 (2014): 80–86.

   40.  N. Houssami et al., “The Association of Surgical Margins and Local Recurrence in Women with Early-Stage Invasive Breast Cancer Treated with Breast-Conserving Therapy: A Meta-analysis,” Annals of Surgical Oncology 21, no. 3 (2014): 717–30.

   41.  G. M. Freedman and B. L. Fowble, “Local Recurrence After Mastectomy or Breast-​Conserving Surgery and Radiation,” Oncology-Huntington14, no. 11 (2000): 1561–80.

   42.  N. Houssami et al., “Meta-analysis of the Impact of Surgical Margins on Local Recurrence in Women with Early-Stage Invasive Breast Cancer Treated with Breast-Conserving Therapy,” European Journal of Cancer46, no. 18 (2010): 3219–32; O. Gentilini et al., “Conservative Surgery in Patients with Multifocal/Multicentric Breast Cancer,” Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 113, no. 3 (2009): 577–83; G. M. Freedman and B. L. Fowble, “Local Recurrence After Mastectomy or Breast-Conserving Surgery and Radiation,” Oncology-Huntington14, no. 11 (2000): 1561–80; A. C. Voogd et al., “Differences in Risk Factors for Local and Distant Recurrence After Breast-Conserving Therapy or Mastectomy for Stage I and II Breast Cancer: Pooled Results of Two Large European Randomized Trials,” Journal of Clinical Oncology19, no. 6 (2001): 1688–97; I. L. Wapnir et al., “Prognosis after Ipsilateral Breast Tumor Recurrence and Locoregional Recurrences in Five National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project Node-Positive Adjuvant Breast Cancer Trials,” Journal of Clinical Oncology24, no. 13 (2006): 2028–37.

   43.  I. L. Wapnir, et al., “Long-Term Outcomes of Invasive Ipsilateral Breast Tumor Recurrences After Lumpectomy in NSABP B-17 and B-24 Randomized Clinical Trials for DCIS,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute103, no. 6 (2011): 478–88.

   44.  L. Kelley, M. Silverstein, and L. Guerra, “Analyzing the Risk of Recurrence After Mastectomy for DCIS: A New Use for the USC/Van Nuys Prognostic Index,” Annals of Surgical Oncology18, no. 2 (2011): 459–62.

   45.  M. S. Moran et al., “Society of Surgical Oncology–American Society for Radiation Oncology Consensus Guideline on Margins for Breast-Conserving Surgery with Whole-Breast Irradiation in Stages I and II Invasive Breast Cancer,” International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics88, no. 3 (2014): 553–64.

   46.  G.M. Freedman and B. L. Fowble, “Local Recurrence After Mastectomy or Breast-Conserving Surgery and Radiation,” Oncology (Williston Park)14, no. 11 (November 2000): 1561–81; M. Colleoni et al., “Annual Hazard Rates of Recurrence for Breast Cancer During 24 Years of Follow-Up: Results from the International Breast Cancer Study Group Trials I to V,” Journal of Clinical Oncology34, no. 9 (2016): 927–35.

   47.  B. Gerber, M. Freund, and T. Reimer, “Recurrent Breast Cancer: Treatment Strategies for Maintaining and Prolonging Good Quality of Life,” Deutsches Arzteblatt International107, no. 6 (2010): 85–91; Nick Mulcahy, “The Mystery of a Common Breast Cancer Statistic,” Medscape, August 18, 2015, https://www​.medscape​.com/viewarticle/849644#vp_1.

   48.  K. L. Kummerow et al., “Nationwide Trends in Mastectomy for Early-Stage Breast Cancer,” JAMA Surgery150, no. 1 (2015): 9–16.

   49.  C. S. Fisher et al., “Fear of Recurrence and Perceived Survival Benefit Are Primary Motivators for Choosing Mastectomy over Breast-Conservation Therapy Regardless of Age,” Annals of Surgical Oncology19, no. 10 (2012): 3246–50.

   50.  M. A. Warmuth et al., “Complications of Axillary Lymph Node Dissection for Carcinoma of the Breast: A Report Based on a Patient Survey,” Cancer83 (1998): 1362–68; D. Ivens et al., “Assessment of Morbidity from Complete Axillary Dissection,” British Journal of Cancer66, no. 1 (1992): 136–38; E. K. Yeoh et al., “Primary Breast Cancer: Complications of Axillary Management,”Acta Radiologica Oncology25, no. 2 (1986): 105–8.

   51.  A. Lucci et al., “Surgical Complications Associated with Sentinel Lymph Node Dissection (SLND) Plus Axillary Lymph Node Dissection Compared with SLND Alone in the American College of Surgeons Oncology Group Trial,” Journal of Clinical Oncology 25 (2007): 3657.

   52.  L. G. Wilke et al., “Surgical Complications Associated with Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy: Results from a Prospective International Cooperative Group Trial,” Annals of Surgical Oncology13, no. 4 (2006): 491–500; R. E. Mansel et al., “Randomized Multicenter Trial of Sentinel Node Biopsy Versus Standard Axillary Treatment in Operable Breast Cancer: The ALMANAC Trial,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute98, no. 9 (May 2006): 599–609.

   53.  A. E. Giuliano et al., “Axillary Dissection vs No Axillary Dissection in Women with Invasive Breast Cancer and Sentinel Node Metastasis: A Randomized Clinical Trial,” Journal of the American Medical Association305 (2011): 569–75.

   54.  T. W. F. Yen et al., “Predictors of Invasive Breast Cancer in Patients with an Initial Diagnosis of Ductal Carcinoma In Situ: A Guide to Selective Use of Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Management of Ductal Carcinoma In Situ,” Journal of the American College of Surgeons200, no. 4 (2005): 516–26.

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   58.  B. Palmieri et al., “Delayed Nipple‐Sparing Modified Subcutaneous Mastectomy: Rationale and Technique,” Breast Journal11, no. 3 (2005): 173–78.

   59.  S. Ghali et al., “Vascular Delay Revisited,” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery119 (2007): 1735–44.

   60.  J. A. Jensen et al., “Surgical Delay of the Nipple–Areolar Complex: A Powerful Technique to Maximize Nipple Viability Following Nipple-Sparing Mastectomy,” Annals of Surgical Oncology19, no. 10 (2012): 3171–76.

   61.  S. L. Spear et al., “Breast Reconstruction Using a Staged Nipple-Sparing Mastectomy Following Mastopexy or Reduction,” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery129, no. 3 (2012): 572–81.

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   87.  M. Clarke et al., “Effects of Radiotherapy and of Differences in the Extent of Surgery for Early Breast Cancer on Local Recurrence and 15-Year Survival: An Overview of the Randomised Trials,” Lancet366 (2005): 2087–106.

   88.  J. Hastings et al., “Risk Factors for Locoregional Recurrence After Mastectomy in Stage T1 N0 Breast Cancer,” American Journal of Clinical Oncology37, no. 5 (2014): 486–91.

   89.  A. McBride et al., “Locoregional Recurrence Risk for Patients with T1, 2 Breast Cancer with 1–3 Positive Lymph Nodes Treated with Mastectomy and Systemic Treatment,” International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics89, no. 2 (2014): 392–98.

   90.  G. Jacobson, et al., “Randomized Trial of Pentoxifylline and Vitamin E vs Standard Follow-Up After Breast Irradiation to Prevent Breast Fibrosis, Evaluated by Tissue Compliance Meter,” International Journal of Radiation Oncology* Biology* Physics 85, no. 3 (2013): 604–8; T. B. Chiao and A. J. Lee, “Role of Pentoxifylline and Vitamin E in Attenuation of Radiation-Induced Fibrosis,” Annals of Pharmacotherapy39, no. 3 (2005): 516–22.

   91.  T. J. Whelan et al., “Long-Term Results of Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy for Breast Cancer,” New England Journal of Medicine362, no. 6 (2010): 513–20.

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   93.  U. Veronesi et al., “Radiotherapy After Breast-Conserving Surgery in Small Breast Carcinoma: Long-Term Results of a Randomized Trial,” Annals of Oncology12 (2001): 997–1003.

   94.  F. Sedlmayer, F. Zehentmayr, and G. Fastner, “Partial Breast Re-irradiation for Local Recurrence of Breast Carcinoma: Benefit and Long Term Side Effects,” Breast22, no. 2 (August 2013): S141–46.

   95.  J. S. Vaidya et al., “Targeted Intraoperative Radiotherapy (TARGIT): An Innovative Approach to Partial-Breast Irradiation,” Seminars in Radiation Oncology15, no. 2 (April 2005): 84–91; U. Veronesi et al., “Intraoperative Radiotherapy Versus External Beam Radiotherapy for Early Breast Cancer (ELIOT): A Randomised Controlled Equivalence Trial,” Lancet Oncology14, no. 13 (December 2013): 1269–77.

   96.  C. Shah, J. Wobb, and A. Khan, “Intraoperative Radiation Therapy in Breast Cancer: Still Not Ready for Prime Time,” Annals of Surgical Oncology 23, no. 6 (2016): 1796–98.

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   98.  M. Clarke et al., “Effects of Radiotherapy and of Differences in the Extent of Surgery for Early Breast Cancer on Local Recurrence and 15-Year Survival: An Overview of the Randomised Trials,” Lancet366, no. 9503 (December 2005): 2087–106.

   99.  E. Styring et al., “Radiation-Associated Angiosarcoma After Breast Cancer: Improved Survival by Excision of All Irradiated Skin and Soft Tissue of the Thoracic Wall? A Report of Six Patients,” Acta Oncologica54, no. 7 (2015): 1078–80.

100.  T. Grantzau and J. Overgaard, “Risk of Second Non-Breast Cancer Among Patients Treated with and Without Postoperative Radiotherapy for Primary Breast Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Population-Based Studies Including 522,739 Patients,” Radiotherapy and Oncology121, no. 3 (2016): 402–13.

101.  C. Shah et al., “Brachytherapy-Based Partial Breast Irradiation Is Associated with Low Rates of Complications and Excellent Cosmesis,” Brachytherapy12, no. 4 (2013): 278–84.

102.  National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN), “NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology: Breast Cancer,” https://www.nccn.org/professionals​/physician_gls/default.aspx.

103.  I. H. Kunkler et al., “Breast-Conserving Surgery with or Without Irradiation in Women Aged 65 Years or Older with Early Breast Cancer (PRIME II): A Randomised Controlled Trial,” Lancet Oncology16, no. 3 (2015): 266–73.

104.  B. McCormick et al., “RTOG 9804: A Prospective Randomized Trial for Good-Risk Ductal Carcinoma In Situ Comparing Radiotherapy with Observation,” Journal of Clinical Oncology33, no. 7 (March 2015): 709–15.

105.  M. Donker et al., “Breast-Conserving Treatment with or Without Radiotherapy in Ductal Carcinoma In Situ: 15-Year Recurrence Rates and Outcome After a Recurrence, from the EORTC 10853 Randomized Phase III Trial,” Journal of Clinical Oncology31, no. 32 (2013): 4054–59.

106.  L. J. Solin et al., “A Multi-Gene Expression Assay to Predict Local Recurrence Risk for Ductal Carcinoma In Situ of the Breast,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute105, no. 10 (May 2013): 701–10.

107.  C. E. DeSantis et al., “Breast Cancer Statistics, 2015: Convergence of Incidence Rates Between Black and White Women,” CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians66, no. 1 (2016): 31–42.

108.  J. F. R. Robertson et al., “Fulvestrant 500 mg Versus Anastrozole 1 mg for Hormone Receptor-Positive Advanced Breast Cancer (FALCON): An International, Randomised, Double-Blind, Phase 3 Trial,” Lancet388, no. 10063 (2016): 2997–3005.

109.  Early Breast Cancer Trialists’ Collaborative Group, “Relevance of Breast Cancer Hormone Receptors and Other Factors to the Efficacy of Adjuvant Tamoxifen: Patient-Level Meta-analysis of Randomised Trials,” Lancet 378, no. 9793 (2011): 771–84.

110.  A. Howell et al., “Results of the ATAC (Arimidex, Tamoxifen, Alone or in Combination) Trial after Completion of 5 Years’ Adjuvant Treatment for Breast Cancer,” Lancet365, no. 9453 (2005): 60–62.

111.  O. Pagani, M. M. Regan, and P. A. Francis, “TEXT and SOFT Investigators; International Breast Cancer Study Group. Exemestane with Ovarian Suppression in Premenopausal Breast Cancer,” New England Journal of Medicine371 (2014): 1358–59.

112.  C. Davies et al., “Adjuvant Tamoxifen: Longer Against Shorter (ATLAS) Collaborative Group. Long-Term Effects of Continuing Adjuvant Tamoxifen to 10 Years Versus Stopping at 5 Years After Diagnosis of Oestrogen Receptor-Positive Breast Cancer: ATLAS, a Randomised Trial,” Lancet381 (2013): 805–16.

113.  P. E. Goss et al., “A Randomized Trial of Letrozole in Postmenopausal Women After Five Years of Tamoxifen Therapy for Early-Stage Breast Cancer,” New England Journal of Medicine349 (2003): 1793–802.

114.  D. C. Allred et al., “Adjuvant Tamoxifen Reduces Subsequent Breast Cancer in Women with Estrogen Receptor-Positive Ductal Carcinoma In Situ: A Study Based on NSABP Protocol B-24,” Journal of Clinical Oncology30, no. 12 (April 2012): 1268–73.

115.  L. Fallowfield et al., “Quality of Life of Postmenopausal Women in the Arimidex, Tamoxifen, Alone or in Combination (ATAC) Adjuvant Breast Cancer Trial,” Journal of Clinical Oncology22, no. 21 (November 2004): 4261–71.

116.  D. Slamon et al., “Adjuvant Trastuzumab in HER2-Positive Breast Cancer,” New England Journal of Medicine365 (2011): 1273–83.

117.  H. S. Rugo et al., “Heritage: A Phase III Safety and Efficacy Trial of the Proposed Trastuzumab Biosimilar Myl-1401O Versus Herceptin,” Journal of Clinical Oncology34, no. 18, LBA503.

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120.  H. L. McArthur and D. B. Page, “Immunotherapy for the Treatment of Breast Cancer: Checkpoint Blockade, Cancer Vaccines, and Future Directions in Combination Immunotherapy,” Clinical Advances in Hematology and Oncology14, no. 11 (2016): 922–33.

121.  E. M. Walker et al., “Acupuncture Versus Venlafaxine for the Management of Vasomotor Symptoms in Patients with Hormone Receptor-Positive Breast Cancer: A Randomized Controlled Trial,” Journal of Clinical Oncology28, no. 4 (2009): 634–40.

122.  T. Gansler et al., “A Population‐Based Study of Prevalence of Complementary Methods Use by Cancer Survivors,” Cancer113, no. 5 (2008): 1048–57.

123.  M. A. Richardson et al., “Complementary/Alternative Medicine Use in a Comprehensive Cancer Center and the Implications for Oncology,” Journal of Clinical Oncology18, no. 13 (2000): 2505–14.

124.  H. S. Boon, F. Olatunde, and S. M. Zick, “Trends in Complementary/Alternative Medicine Use by Breast Cancer Survivors: Comparing Survey Data from 1998 and 2005,” BMC Women’s Health7, no. 1 (2007): 4.

125.  A. Molassiotis et al., “Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Cancer Patients: A European Survey,” Annals of Oncology16, no. 4 (2005): 655–63.

Chapter 10: Now What? Life After Diagnosis and Treatment

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     3.  A. Lucci et al., “Circulating Tumour Cells in Non-metastatic Breast Cancer: A Prospective Study,” Lancet Oncology13, no. 7 (July 2012): 688–95.

     4.  S. J. Dawson et al., “Analysis of Circulating Tumor DNA to Monitor Metastatic Breast Cancer,” New England Journal of Medicine368, no. 13 (2013): 1199–209.

     5.  E. Grunfeld et al., “Population-Based Longitudinal Study of Follow-Up Care for Breast Cancer Survivors,” Journal of Oncology Practice6, no. 4 (July 2010): 174–81.

     6.  LIVESTRONG,How Cancer Has Affected Post-treatment Survivors: A LIVESTRONG Report, https://d1un1nybq8gi3x.cloudfront.net/sites/default/files/what-we​-do​/reports/LSSurvivorSurveyReport.pdf.

     7.  Z. Koak and J. Overgaard, “Risk Factors of Arm Lymphedema in Breast Cancer Patients,” Acta Oncologica39 (2000): 389–92.

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     9.  T. DiSipio et al., “Incidence of Unilateral Arm Lymphoedema After Breast Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis,” Lancet Oncology14, no. 6 (2013): 500–15.

   10.  M. T. Lacomba et al., “Effectiveness of Early Physiotherapy to Prevent Lymphoedema After Surgery for Breast Cancer: Randomised, Single Blinded, Clinical Trial,” British Medical Journal340 (January 2010): b5396.

   11.  International Society of Lymphology, “The Diagnosis and Treatment of Peripheral Lymphedema. 2009 Concensus Document of the International Society of Lymphology,” Lymphology42, no. 2 (2009): 51–60.

   12.  R. Ito and H. Suami, “Overview of Lymph Node Transfer for Lymphedema Treatment,” Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery134, no. 3 (2014): 548–56.

   13.  S. L. Showalter et al., “Lifestyle Risk Factors Associated with Arm Swelling AmongWomen with Breast Cancer,” Annals of Surgical Oncology20, no. 3 (March 2013): 842–49.

   14.  C. M. Ferguson et al., “Impact of Ipsilateral Blood Draws, Injections, Blood Pressure Measurements, and Air Travel on the Risk of Lymphedema for Patients Treated for Breast Cancer,” Journal of Clinical Oncology34, no. 7 (2015): 691–98.

   15.  S. Dhesy-Thind et al., “Use of Adjuvant Bisphosphonates and Other Bone-Modifying Agents in Breast Cancer,” Journal of Clinical Oncology 35, no. 18 (June 2017): 2062–81.

   16.  K. D. Crew, “Prevalence of Joint Symptoms in Postmenopausal Women Taking Aromatase Inhibitors for Early-Stage Breast Cancer,” Journal of Clinical Oncology 25, no. 25 (September 2007): 3877–83.

   17.  M. Seretny et al., “Incidence, Prevalence, and Predictors of Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis,” PAIN155, no. 12 (2014): 2461–70.

   18.  D. Irvine et al., “The Prevalence and Correlates of Fatigue in Patients Receiving Treatment with Chemotherapy and Radiotherapy,” Cancer Nursing17, no. 5 (October 1994): 367–78.

   19.  J. E. Bower et al., “Fatigue in Breast Cancer Survivors: Occurrence, Correlates, and Impact on Quality of Life,” Journal of Clinical Oncology18, no. 4 (February 2000): 743–53.

   20.  D. S. Dizon, “Quality of Life After Breast Cancer: Survivorship and Sexuality,” Breast Journal15, no. 5 (September–October 2009): 500–504.

   21.  J. E. Dew, B. G. Wren, and J. A. Eden, “A Cohort Study of Topical Vaginal Estrogen Therapy in Women Previously Treated for Breast Cancer,” Climacteric6, no. 1 (March 2003): 45–52.

   22.  A. Kendall et al., “Caution: Vaginal Estradiol Appears to Be Contraindicated in Postmenopausal Women on Adjuvant Aromatase Inhibitors,” Annals of Oncology17, no. 4 (April 2006): 584–87.

   23.  A. Chang et al., “The Effect of Herbal Extract (EstroG‐100) on Pre‐, Peri‐ and Post‐Menopausal Women: A Randomized Double‐Blind, Placebo‐Controlled Study,” Phytotherapy Research26, no. 4 (2012): 510–16.

   24.  V. D. E. Simone and O. Pagani, “Pregnancy After Breast Cancer: Hope After the Storm,” Minerva Ginecologica69, no. 6 (December 2017): 597–607.

   25.  H. A. Azim et al., “Safety of Pregnancy Following Breast Cancer Diagnosis: A Meta-analysis of 14 Studies,” European Journal of Cancer47, no. 1 (2011): 74–83.

   26.  P. Fani, “Breastfeeding and Breast Cancer,” Health Science Journal 6, no. 4 (October–December 2012): 610.

   27.  O. G. Palesh et al., “A Longitudinal Study of Depression, Pain, and Stress as Predictors of Sleep Disturbance Among Women with Metastatic Breast Cancer,” Biological Psychology75, no. 1 (April 2007): 37–44.

   28.  F. N. Bokhari et al., “Pilot Study of a Survey to Identify the Prevalence of and Risk Factors for Chronic Neuropathic Pain Following Breast Cancer Surgery,” Oncology Nursing Forum 39, no. 2 (March 2012): E141–49.

   29.  M. C. Lauridsen, P. Christiansen, and I. B. Hessov, “The Effect of Physiotherapy on Shoulder Function in Patients Surgically Treated for Breast Cancer: A Randomized Study,” Acta Oncologica44, no. 5 (2005): 449–57.

   30.  M. T. Lacomba et al., “Axillary Web Syndrome After Axillary Dissection in Breast Cancer: A Prospective Study,” Breast Cancer Research and Treatment117, no. 3 (2009): 625–30.

   31.  K. M. Mustian et al., “A 4-Week Home-Based Aerobic and Resistance Exercise Program During Radiation Therapy: A Pilot Randomized Clinical Trial,” Journal of Supportive Oncology7, no. 5 (September–October 2009): 158–67; I. Cantarero-Villanueva et al., “Effectiveness of Water Physical Therapy on Pain, Pressure Pain Sensitivity, and Myofascial Trigger Points in Breast Cancer Survivors: A Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial,” Pain Medicine13, no. 11 (November 2012): 1509–19.

   32.  P. F. Pradat et al., “Radiation-Induced Neuropathies: Collateral Damage of Improved Cancer Prognosis,” Revue Neurologique168 (2012): 939–50.

   33.  C. P. Watson and R. J. Evans, “The Postmastectomy Pain Syndrome and Topical Capsaicin: A Randomized Trial,” Pain51, no. 3 (December 1992): 375–79.

   34.  H. S. Smith and S. X. Wu, “Persistent Pain After Breast Cancer Treatment,” Annals of Palliative Medicine1, no. 3 (2013): 182–94.

   35.  T. S. Alster and E. L. Tanzi, “Hypertrophic Scars and Keloids,” American Journal of Clinical Dermatology4, no. 4 (2003): 235–43.

   36.  M. G. Khouri et al., “Cancer Therapy–Induced Cardiac Toxicity in Early Breast Cancer,” Circulation126, no. 23 (2012): 2749–63.

   37.  I. F. Tannock et al., “Cognitive Impairment Associated with Chemotherapy for Cancer: Report of a Workshop,” Journal of Clinical Oncology22, no. 11 (2004): 2233–39.

   38.  M. Ramalho et al., “Cognitive Impairment in the First Year After Breast Cancer Diagnosis: A Prospective Cohort Study,” Breast32 (2017): 173–78.

   39.  D. H. Silverman et al. “Abnormal Regional Brain Metabolism in Breast Cancer Survivors After Adjuvant Chemotherapy Is Associated with Cognitive Changes,” Proceedings of the American Society of Clinical Oncology22 (2003).

   40.  S. B. Schagen et al., “Change in Cognitive Function After Chemotherapy: A Prospective Longitudinal Study in Breast Cancer Patients,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute98, no. 23 (2006): 1742–45.

   41.  X. Chen et al., “Decision-Making Impairments in Breast Cancer Patients Treated with Tamoxifen,” Hormones and Behavior 66, no. 2 (2014): 449–56.

   42.  T. A. Ahles and A. J. Saykin, “Candidate Mechanisms for Chemotherapy-Induced Cognitive Changes,” Nature Reviews: Cancer7, no. 3 (March 2007): 192–201.

   43.  R. J. Ferguson et al., “Cognitive‐Behavioral Management of Chemotherapy‐Related Cognitive Change,” Psycho-Oncology16, no. 8 (2007): 772–77.

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   45.  M. Schaapveld et al., “Risk of New Primary Nonbreast Cancers After Breast Cancer Treatment: A Dutch Population-Based Study,” Journal of Clinical Oncology26, no. 8 (March 2008): 1239–46.

   46.  E. Diamandidou et al., “Treatment-Related Leukemia in Breast Cancer Patients Treated with Fluorouracil-doxorubicin-cyclophosphamide Combination Adjuvant Chemotherapy: The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center Experience,” Journal of Clinical Oncology14, no. 10 (October 1996): 2722–30.

   47.  T. Grantzau and J. Overgaard, “Risk of Second Non-breast Cancer Among Patients Treated with and Without Postoperative Radiotherapy for Primary Breast Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Population-Based Studies Including 522,739 Patients,” Radiotherapy and Oncology121, no. 3 (2016): 402–13.

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   49.  R. Jagsi et al., “Patient-Reported Quality of Life and Satisfaction with Cosmetic Outcomes After Breast Conservation and Mastectomy with and Without Reconstruction: Results of a Survey of Breast Cancer Survivors,” Annals of Surgery261, no. 6 (2015): 1198.

   50.  M. E. Mast, “Survivors of Breast Cancer: Illness Uncertainty, Positive Reappraisal, and Emotional Distress,” Oncology Nursing Forum25, no. 3 (April 1998): 555–62.

   51.  R. R. Bouknight, C. J. Bradley, and Z. Luo, “Correlates of Return to Work for Breast Cancer Survivors,” Journal of Clinical Oncology24, no. 3 (2006): 345–53.

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